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  • Author or Editor: Gary R. Stevens x
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In a prospective study, 141 cats with hematuria, dysuria, urethral obstruction, or combinations of these signs were evaluated by contemporary diagnostic methods and compared with 26 clinically normal cats (controls). Specific diagnosis was established in 45% (64/141) of cats affected with lower urinary tract disease (lutd). Crystalline matrix plug-induced urethral obstruction was diagnosed in 21% (30/141) of affected cats, uroliths were identified in 21% (30/141) of affected cats, uroliths with concomitant bacterial urinary tract infection (uti) were identified in < 2% (2/141) of affected cats, and bacterial uti alone was identified in < 2% (2/141) of cats with lutd. Viruses, mycoplasmas, and ureaplasmas were not isolated from urine samples collected from affected or control cats.

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4)-neutralizing antibodies were not detected in any serum sample obtained from cats with lutd or from control cats. In contrast, bhv-4 antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) test in sera obtained from 31% (44/141) of cats with lutd and 23% (6/26) of control cats. The prevalence of positive bhv-4 ifa test results in affected cats was not significantly different from that observed in control cats. Significant association was not apparent between positive bhv-4 ifa test results and clinical diagnosis, abnormal laboratory findings, or cat age. However, the number of male cats with bhv-4 ifa titer was significantly (P < 0.02, χ2 test) greater than that of female cats. Detection of bhv-4 antibodies in approximately 30% of affected and control cats indicates prior virus exposure. Further investigations are warranted to clarify the specific role of bhv-4 in cats with naturally acquired lutd.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Sodium salicylate was administered to cattle and goats iv and po according to a crossover design. Total urinary excretion of sa and its metabolites was measured for 3 days after dosing. Salicyluric acid (sua) was the only metabolite detected in urine of either species. Recovery of sodium salicylate and sua in goats amounted to 67.9 and 34.6% of the dose, respectively, after iv administration. After oral dosing, total recoveries were 30.2% (sodium salicylate) and 71.7%(sua) of dose. By comparison, cattle excreted significantly (P < 0.05) less sodium salicylate (54.0%) and more sua (49.9%) after iv dosing. The same pattern was observed after oral administration, wherein cattle excreted < 12% as sodium salicylate and more than 99% as sua. In both species, almost 90% of the drug excreted as sodium salicylate was found in urine within the first 12 hours after an iv dose and within 24 hours after oral dosing. The excretion of sua was somewhat slower in both species, especially after oral administration. The data suggested that there were only quantitative differences in the metabolism and elimination of sodium salicylate between the 2 species, with cattle excreting a higher proportion of the drug as the glycine conjugate sua.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To examine in vitro effects of various antiproteolytic compounds on activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in the tear film of horses with active corneal ulcers.

Sample Population—Samples of tear film obtained from the eyes of 34 horses with active ulcerative keratitis.

Procedure—Horses were sedated, and tear samples were collected from the lower fornix of 34 ulcerated eyes by use of capillary tubes. The protease inhibitors 0.2% EDTA, 0.1% doxycycline, 10% N-acetylcysteine (NAC), 0.1% solution of a modified dipeptide that contains hydroxamic acid (ie, ilomostat), 0.1% α1-proteinase inhibitor (PI), 0.5% α1-PI, and 100% fresh equine serum (ES) were used to treat pooled samples. Amount of latent and active MMP-2 and -9 was measured by optical density scanning of gelatin zymograms of treated and untreated tear samples.

Results—Pooled tear samples obtained from ulcerated eyes contained the latent and active forms of MMP-2 and -9. Compared with MMP activity in untreated samples, total MMP activity (sum of all bands detected) observed on the gelatin zymogram gels was reduced by 99.4% by EDTA, 96.3% by doxycycline, 98.8% by NAC, 98.9% by ilomostat, 52.4% by 0.1% α1-PI, 93.6% by 0.5% α1-PI, and 90.0% by ES.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We documented that EDTA, doxycycline, NAC, ilomostat, α1- PI, and ES inhibited MMP activity in vitro. Because these compounds use different mechanisms to inhibit various families of proteases in the tear film of horses, a combination of these protease inhibitors may be beneficial for treatment of corneal ulcers in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1081–1087)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research