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  • Author or Editor: Günter Scholtysik x
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Objective—To determine concentrations of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in CSF of a large number of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy or genetic epilepsy and to evaluate changes in CSF amino acid concentration with regard to drug treatment and sex.

Animals—35 Labrador Retrievers with genetic epilepsy (20 male and 15 female), 94 non-Labrador Retrievers with idiopathic epilepsy (71 male and 23 female), and 20 control dogs (10 male and 10 female).

Procedure—Collection of CSF was performed > 72 hours after the occurrence of seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (GLU), aspartate (ASP), serine, and glycine were determined by use of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

Results—CSF concentrations of GABA and GLU were significantly lower in Labrador Retrievers with genetic epilepsy (LR-group dogs) than in control-group dogs or in non-Labrador Retrievers with idiopathic epilepsy (non–LR-group dogs). The GLU-to-GABA ratio was significantly higher in LR-group dogs than in non–LR-group dogs. CSF concentrations of GLU and ASP were significantly lower when all dogs with epilepsy (non–LR- and LR-group dogs combined) were compared with control-group dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A decrease in CSF concentrations of GABA appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of genetically determined epilepsy in Labrador Retrievers. However, this decrease in CSF concentrations of GABA may also be a consequence of seizure activity. The GLU-to-GABA ratio may prove to be a useful indicator of genetic epilepsy in Labrador Retrievers. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1108–1113)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize and compare in vitro contractility patterns of sections of abomasal wall harvested from cattle of 3 dairy breeds.

Sample Population—Longitudinal and circular smooth muscle preparations harvested from the antrum and body of the abomasum of 30 recently slaughtered Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental X Red Holstein cows.

Procedure—Spontaneous isometric contractions of specimens in tissue baths of modified Krebs solution were recorded during a 4-hour period. Maximal amplitude, frequency of contractions, and change of basal tension were used to characterize contractility. Statistical analyses were used to test for differences among time periods, among breeds, between specimen locations, and between fiber orientations.

Results—Myoactivity patterns of abomasal smooth muscle preparations are highly variable and differ on the basis of location and fiber orientation. Frequency of contractions differed significantly among time periods for longitudinally oriented specimens with decreasing frequencies of contractions over time. Maximal amplitude of the longitudinally oriented specimens from the antrum increased significantly, whereas maximal amplitude of the circularly oriented specimens from the antrum decreased significantly. Values did not differ significantly among breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Patterns of spontaneous contractility of abomasal wall specimens are not homogeneous. During a 4-hour recording period, maximal amplitude and frequency of contractions of specimens varied significantly with respect to orientation and location; however, spontaneous contractile myoactivity did not differ significantly among breeds. Therefore, breed predisposition for displaced abomasum is not correlated with spontaneous activity of smooth muscle specimens. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1687–1694)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research