Objective—To determine patterns of alveolar bone
loss (periodontitis) and other lesions evident on fullmouth
survey radiographs of cats.
Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were evaluated
for evidence and severity of alveolar bone loss, odontoclastic
resorption lesions (ORL), retained roots,
missing teeth, signs of endodontic disease secondary
to periodontitis, and apical resorption.
Results—106 (72%) cats had some degree of periodontitis,
100 (68%) were missing teeth, 98 (67%)
had ORL, 78 (53%) had expansion of the buccal alveolar
bone at 1 or more canine teeth, 75 (51%) had
retained roots, 48 (33%) had apical resorption, and 12
(8%) had signs of endodontic disease secondary to
periodontitis. Cats < 4 years old were not significantly
more likely than the general population to have normal
alveolar bone height. Prevalence of ORL
increased with age, but cats ≥ 13 years old were less
likely than the general population to have moderate or
severe generalized periodontitis. Purebred cats were
not significantly more likely to have periodontitis or
ORL than mixed-breed cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that periodontitis is common in cats and that horizontal
bone loss is the most common radiographic
pattern of alveolar bone loss. Purebred cats were not
more likely than mixed-breed cats to have ORL or
periodontitis, but when they did have periodontitis, it
was more likely to be moderate to severe. Cats with
ORL were less likely than cats without ORL to have
normal alveolar bone height and more likely to have
severe focal vertical bone loss. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether odontoclastic
resorption lesions were associated with radiographic
evidence of periapical lucencies in cats.
Animals—265 feline dental patients.
Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were examined
for evidence of odontoclastic resorption lesions, periapical
lucencies, periodontitis, and fractured teeth.
Results—Odontoclastic resorption lesions affecting
567 teeth were identified in 161 (60.8%) cats.
Periapical lucencies were identified in 53 teeth in 35
cats. Periapical lucencies were most commonly associated
with fractured teeth (25 teeth with periapical
lucencies) and severe periodontitis (21 teeth). None of
the periapical lucencies appeared to be specifically
associated with resorption lesions. Prevalence of periapical
lucencies in cats with resorption lesions was not
significantly different from prevalence in cats without.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that although odontoclastic resorption lesions are
common in cats, pulpal involvement associated with
these lesions does not appear to be associated with
development of radiographically detectable periapical
lucencies. Crown amputation with intentional root
retention may, therefore, be a suitable alternative to
extraction in selected cats with odontoclastic resorption
lesions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1866–1869)
Objective—To evaluate results of root canal treatment
Sample Population—127 tooth roots in 64 dogs.
Procedure—Radiographs obtained before surgery,
immediately after surgery, and during follow-up
examinations after surgery were evaluated by 2 individuals.
Treatment was considered successful if the
periodontal ligament space was normal and possible
preoperative root resorption, if present, had ceased.
Treatment was considered to show no evidence of
failure if possible preoperative root resorption had
ceased but a preexisting periapical lesion had
remained the same or only decreased in size and not
complete resolved. Treatment was considered to
have failed if a periapical lesion or root resorption
developed subsequent to endodontic treatment, if a
preexisting periapical lesion had increased in size, or
if possible preoperative root resorption appeared to
continue after endodontic treatment.
Results—Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 60 months
(mean, 13 months). Treatment was classified as successful
for 87 (69%) roots, as showing no evidence of
failure for 33 (26%) roots, and as having failed for 7
(6%) roots. The success rate was lower for canine
teeth than for maxillary fourth premolar teeth. Roots
with a preexisting periapical lucency or preexisting
root resorption had lower success rates. The use of
intracanal medication and the method and quality of
obturation were not associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that root canal treatment offers a viable option
for salvage of periodontally sound but endodontically
diseased teeth in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the prevalence of tooth resorption in dogs and to evaluate whether a classification system for tooth resorption in humans is applicable in this species.
Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007
Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption was classified in accordance with radiographic criteria described for use in humans. Patient signalment and concurrent dental conditions were recorded and tabulated.
Results—Tooth resorption was detected in 120 of 224 (53.6%) dogs and 943 of 8,478 (11.1%) teeth. The classification system for use in humans was applicable in 908 of 943 (96.3%) affected teeth. Tooth resorption was more frequent among older and large-breed dogs; no significant differences were found among sex categories. The 2 most common types of tooth resorption were external replacement resorption (77/224 [34.4%] dogs and 736/8,478 [8.7%] teeth) and external inflammatory resorption (58/224 [25.9%] dogs and 121/8,478 [1.4%] teeth). External cervical root surface resorption was detected in 13 of 224 (5.8%) dogs; external surface resorption was detected in 10 of 224 (4.5%) dogs, and internal inflammatory resorption and internal surface resorption were detected in 9 of 224 (4.0%) and 1 of 224 (0.4%) dogs, respectively. Internal replacement resorption was not detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The classification of tooth resorption in humans was applicable to tooth resorption in dogs. Resorption lesions, in general, and external replacement and external inflammatory resorption, in particular, were frequently detected in dogs.
Objective—To determine applicability of the 2007 American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC) classification method for determining extent of tooth resorption in dogs.
Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007.
Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption in dogs was classified in accordance with the radiographic criteria described for use in human teeth and, when applicable, the guidelines described in the 2007 AVDC classification method.
Results—851 of 943 (90.2%) affected teeth met the radiographic characteristics of 1 of the 5 stages of tooth resorption described by the AVDC classification method. Among tooth resorption types described for human teeth, the AVDC classification method was totally applicable (100%) in 17 teeth with external surface resorption, 21 teeth with external replacement resorption, and 736 teeth with external cervical root surface resorption, but it was applicable in only 56 of 121 (46.3%) teeth with external inflammatory resorption and none of the teeth with internal resorption.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The AVDC classification method was useful to describe the extent of tooth resorption in dogs, but it did not reflect the radiographic patterns and location of lesions. The AVDC classification method was applicable in some, but not all, of the teeth with various resorption types in dogs. The AVDC classification method could be adapted best to lesions that have radiographic patterns of external replacement resorption and external cervical root surface resorption.
Periodontal disease is the most common disease identified in dogs and cats.1 Local severity and the impact on the rest of the body are reasons that all companion animal patients should receive an oral examination every time they are at a veterinary facility.2,3
Veterinary dentistry has progressed from the dental or prophylactic procedures of the 20th century, which often involved an injection of a short-acting tranquilizer or anesthetic and a few minutes spent removing supragingival calculus, to the current comprehensive treatment of periodontal and other dental diseases that require general anesthesia. The days of clean-and-pull or watchful
Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).
Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.
Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.
Objective—To determine the diagnostic value of 2
intraoral bisecting angle radiographic views in comparison
with periodontal probing for the assessment
of periodontal attachment of the canine teeth in dogs.
Study Population—466 canine teeth from 117 dogs.
Procedure—Periodontal probing measurements
were recorded, and clinical attachment levels (CAL)
were calculated at the mesial, buccal, distal, and lingual
(or palatal) surfaces on each canine tooth.
Occlusal and lateral radiographs of the canine teeth
were obtained. Alveolar margin height (AMH) was
measured at the same 4 surfaces. Values for AMH
and CAL were compared on the basis of tooth surface,
dental arch, and radiographic view.
Results—The AMH at the mesial and distal surfaces of
the mandibular canine teeth was measurable on the
lateral view and was significantly correlated with CAL.
Similar results were found for the mesial and distal surfaces
of the maxillary canine teeth. Buccal and lingual
AMH were measured on the mandibular occlusal radiographic
view, and values were significantly correlated
with CAL, but only the buccal AMH could be assessed
on the occlusal radiographic view of the maxilla with
values that correlated significantly with CAL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lateral
radiographic view is suitable for evaluating periodontal
attachment at the mesial and distal surfaces of the
canine teeth in dogs. The occlusal radiographic view is
suitable for assessing buccal surfaces as well as the
lingual surface of mandibular canine teeth but not the
palatal surface of maxillary canine teeth in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:255–261)
Objective—To determine elemental composition of
teeth with and without odontoclastic resorption
lesions (ORL) in cats.
Sample Population—Normal teeth from 22 cadaver
cats and ORL-affected teeth from 21 cats admitted to
the veterinary hospital for dental treatment.
Procedure—An electron microprobe was used to
analyze weight percentages of calcium, phosphorus,
fluorine, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, and
iron in enamel, dentin, and cementum.
Results—Calcium and phosphorus were the most
abundant elements. Fluorine, sodium, and magnesium
combined were < 5% and sulfur, potassium,
and iron combined were < 0.1% of total elemental
composition. In enamel of normal teeth, a significant
sex-by-jaw location interaction was seen in mean
(± SD) phosphorus content, which was higher in
mandibular teeth of females (17.64 ± 0.41%) but
lower in mandibular teeth of males (16.71 ± 0.83%).
Mean iron content in dentin of normal teeth was significantly
lower in mandibular teeth than maxillary
teeth (0.014 ± 0.005% vs 0.023 ± 0.019%). Mean
enamel sodium content was significantly higher
(0.77 ± 0.046% vs 0.74 ± 0.025) and mean enamel
iron content was significantly lower (0.017 ± 0.008%
vs 0.021 ± 0.005%) in ORL-affected teeth, compared
with normal teeth. In cementum, mean fluorine content
was significantly lower (2.98% ± 0.27 vs 2.99 ±
0.20%) and mean magnesium content was significantly
lower (0.54 ± 0.13% vs 0.60 ± 0.13%) in ORLaffected
teeth, compared with normal teeth.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our
study establish baseline mineral content of enamel,
dentin, and cementum for normal teeth in cats.
Minimal differences in mineral content of enamel and
cementum of normal and ORL-affected teeth were
detected. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:546–550)
OBJECTIVE To systematically characterize the morphology of cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate in dogs.
ANIMALS 32 client-owned dogs with clefts of the lip (n = 5), palate (23), or both (4) that had undergone a CT or cone-beam CT scan of the head prior to any surgical procedures involving the oral cavity or face.
PROCEDURES Dog signalment and skull type were recorded. The anatomic form of each defect was characterized by use of a widely used human oral-cleft classification system on the basis of CT findings and clinical images. Other defect morphological features, including shape, relative size, facial symmetry, and vomer involvement, were also recorded.
RESULTS 9 anatomic forms of cleft were identified. Two anatomic forms were identified in the 23 dogs with cleft palate, in which differences in defect shape and size as well as vomer abnormalities were also evident. Seven anatomic forms were observed in 9 dogs with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, and most of these dogs had incisive bone abnormalities and facial asymmetry.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The morphological features of congenitally acquired cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate were complex and varied among dogs. The features identified here may be useful for surgical planning, developing of clinical coding schemes, or informing genetic, embryological, or clinical research into birth defects in dogs and other species.