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  • Author or Editor: Etta M. Wertz x
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To determine whether hemodynamic responses of halothane-anesthetized horses undergoing surgical procedures depended on anesthetic induction protocols used, and to determine whether hemodynamic responses to surgical manipulation could be detected.


Prospective experimental study without controls.


36 clinically normal horses.


Horses were allotted to 5 groups according to anesthetic induction protocol: acepromazine/guaifene-sin/thiamylal, acepromazine/guaifenesin/ketamine, xyla-zine/guaifenesin/thiamylal, xylazine/guaifenesin/ketamine, and xylazine/diazepam/ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane. Hemodynamic measurements and blood gas values were obtained prior to the start of surgery, during surgery, and after surgery.


Few differences in hemodynamic measurements existed between horses in which anesthesia was induced by 5 anesthetic induction protocols, whether prior to the start of surgery or for pooled values for all 3 measurement periods. Hemodynamic responses to surgical manipulation were marked and included increased mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac index and oxygen delivery.

Clinical Implications—

Choice of anesthetic induction protocol has little impact on hemodynamic function during surgery in halothane-anesthetized horses. Surgical stimulation may increase blood pressure, but does not improve cardiac index or oxygen delivery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:252-257)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine the effects of IV administration of fluids on PCV, serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations, and systolic arterial pressure in healthy anesthetized dogs undergoing elective surgical procedures.


Prospective, randomized controlled trial.


70 clinically normal dogs.


Dogs received IV administration of 0, 5, 10, or 15 ml/kg of body weight/h of a polyionic crystalloid solution or 5% dextrose in water. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of medication, prior to anesthetic induction, after anesthetic induction, at the end of the surgical procedure, and 2 hours after surgery to determine PCV and serum total protein and blood glucose concentrations. Blood pressure was measured before and after anesthetic induction and at the end of the surgery.


There were not any significant differences in PCV, total protein concentration, or systolic arterial pressure among treatment groups. Hyperglycemia developed in dogs receiving 5% dextrose in water, but resolved 2 hours after discontinuing administration of fluids.

Clinical Implications

Intravenous administration of fluids may not be necessary to maintain normal blood pressure in young, healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2013-2015)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association