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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Evoked potentials were induced by transcranial stimulation and recovered from the spinal cord, and the radial and sciatic nerves in six dogs. Stimulation was accomplished with an anode placed on the skin over the area of the motor cortex. Evoked potentials were recovered from the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord by electrodes placed transcutaneously in the ligamentum flavum. Evoked potentials were recovered from the radial and sciatic nerves by surgical exposure and electrodes placed in the perineurium. Signals from 100 repetitive stimuli were averaged and analyzed. Waveforms were analyzed for amplitude and latency. Conduction velocities were estimated from wave latencies and distance traveled. The technique allowed recovery of evoked potentials that had similar characteristics among all dogs. Conduction velocities of potentials recovered from the radial and sciatic nerves suggested stimulation of motor pathways; however, the exact origin and pathway of these waves is unknown.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves abolishes reflex-evoked muscle action potentials (REMP) during tooth-pulp stimulation in halothane-anesthetized cats.

Animals—8 healthy adult cats.

Procedure—In halothane-anesthetized cats, an anodal electrode was attached to the tooth to be stimulated and a platinum needle cathodal electrode was inserted in adjacent gingival mucosa. Cathodal and anodal electrodes were moved to the upper and lower canine, upper fourth premolar, and lower first molar teeth for stimulation; baseline REMP was recorded. A 25-gauge 1-cm needle was inserted 0.5 cm into the infraorbital canal. A 25-gauge 1-cm needle was inserted 1 cm rostral to the angular process of the ramus, and advanced 0.5 cm along the medial aspect. Chloroprocaine was injected at each site. Each tooth was stimulated every 10 minutes for 90 minutes.

Results—REMP was abolished within 10 minutes for all upper teeth, except for the upper canine tooth in 1 cat, and abolished within 10 minutes for lower teeth in 4 cats. In 1 cat, REMP was not abolished in the lower first molar tooth. In 3 cats, REMP was not abolished in the lower canine and first molar teeth. At 90 minutes, REMP was restored for all teeth except the lower canine tooth in 1 cat, for which REMP was restored at 120 minutes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves may provide dental analgesia in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1245–1247)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To document that regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves would abolish reflex-evoked muscle action potentials (REMP) in the digastricus muscle during noninvasive stimulation of tooth pulp in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

9 healthy female dogs between 2 and 6 years old.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized using halothane. An alligator clip anodal electrode was attached to the tooth to be stimulated, and a platinum needle cathodal electrode was inserted in adjacent gingival mucosa. The cathodal and anodal electrodes were moved to the left upper and lower canine, fourth premolar, and first molar teeth for sequential stimulation. Baseline recording of REMP was made for each tooth. Catheters were inserted percutaneously in the infraorbital and mandibular canals. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was injected at each catheterized site in 3 control dogs, and chloroprocaine hydrochloride was injected at each catheterized site in 6 test dogs. Each tooth was stimulated every 10 minutes for 90 minutes (test dogs) or every 10 minutes for 30 minutes and at 90 minutes (control dogs), and REMP was recorded.

Results

REMP was abolished within 10 minutes in all test dogs, except during stimulation of the lower first molar in 1 dog. In 4 dogs, duration of blockade was less than 90 minutes. The REMP was not restored within 90 minutes for the upper teeth in 1 dog and within 2 hours for all teeth in another dog. At 24 hours, REMP was restored for all teeth except the lower left canine in 1 dog. The REMP was restored for the lower left canine in that dog at 96 hours. The REMP was not abolished at any time in control dogs.

Clinical Implications

Regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves may effectively provide analgesia for dental procedures in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1403–1405)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Transcutaneous oxygen (PO2-TC) monitoring is commonly used in human medicine for evaluating skin viability. The application of transcutaneous monitoring for evaluating skin viability in dogs was investigated.

The changes in PO2-TC values were measured from 16 avascular skin flaps created along the lateral hemithoraces of 4 dogs. Transcutaneous oxygen values were serially recorded from the vascular base and avascular apex of each flap for 12 hours after surgery. A single transcutaneous measurement was obtained from each flap base and apex 24 hours after surgery. Serial arterial blood gas analyses were obtained to compare central oxygen values with PO2-TC values. Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were harvested from the base and apex of each flap 24 hours after surgery. The flaps were observed for 4 days and then excised for histologic examination. A subjective grading scale was used to assess histologic changes.

Throughout the 12-hour period and at 24 hours, a statistically significant difference was found between the PO2-TC values for apices and bases of the flaps. The mean PO2-TC for all bases was 90.9 mm of Hg ± 3.3 SEM, and the mean PO2-TC for all apices was 21.2 mm of Hg ± 1.8 SEM. The mean regional perfusion index (apex PO2-TC/base PO2-TC) was 0.23 ± 0.02. The subjective numbers assigned to the biopsy specimens were statistically evaluated by using a paired Student's t test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant difference was found between the numbers for the collective bases and apices with both tests. A statistically significant difference was found between the numbers for the apex biopsy specimens taken 24 hours after creation of the skin flap and those taken when the flap was excised, whereas no difference was found between the numbers for the base biopsy specimens. On the basis of our findings, PO2-tc monitoring is a useful technique for assessing skin viability in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Transcutaneous oxygen monitoring is commonly used in human beings to assess skin viability. Little attention has been directed toward the use of transcutenaous carbon dioxide (PCO2-TC ) monitoring for the same purpose. The application of PCO2-TC monitoring for evaluating skin viability in dogs was investigated.

The changes in PCO2-TC and local power reference (LPR) values were measured from 16 skin flaps created along the lateral hemithoraces of 4 dogs. Transcutaneous PPCO2 and LPR values were serially recorded from the base and apex of each flap for 12 hours. A single measurement was obtained from each flap base and apex 24 hours after surgery. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained to compare central PCO2 values with peripheral skin PCO2 values. The flaps were observed for 4 days and then harvested for histologic examination. Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were obtained 24 hours after surgery and when the flaps were harvested to evaluate the viability of the apex and base of the flaps. A subjective grade was assigned to all skin biopsy specimens during histologic examination.

For all measurements, a significant difference was found between the PCO2-TC values for apices and bases of the flaps. The mean PCO2-TC for all bases was 52.66 mm of Hg ± 2.24 (SEM), and the mean PCO2-TC for all apices was 106.4 mm of Hg ± 2.44. The regional carbon dioxide index (apex PCO2-TC /base PCO2-TC ) was 2.02.

A significant difference was not found between the LPR values for bases and apices. The mean lpr for all bases was 253.23 mW ± 4.06, and the mean LPR for all apices was 243.53 mW ± 4.49.

A signficant difference was found between the histologic grades assigned to the collective bases and apices 4 days after creation of the flaps. A difference was not found between the collective bases and apices 24 hours after flap creation. On the basis of our findings, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring is a useful method of evaluating skin viability in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the histologic pattern and biomechanical properties of adhesions caused by chromic catgut and polypropylene sutures, using an enteropexy model.

Design

Enteropexies were created in dogs, using chromic catgut and polypropylene suture. The adhesions associated with the enteropexies were examined histologically and mechanically.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs weighing 16 to 20 kg.

Procedure

72 enteropexies were created between the jejunum and abdominal wall. 36 sites were sutured with chromic catgut, and 36 were sutured with polypropylene. 3 dogs were euthanatized after 1 week. The remaining dogs were euthanatized after 1 month. Samples of the enteropexy sites were obtained for histologic examination. The remaining sites were mechanically distracted until failure of the enteropexy site or adjacent tissue occurred.

Results

Histologic examination of the enteropexy sites did not reveal substantial differences in the degree of inflammation between the 2 suture types at 1 week or 1 month. The degree of inflammation decreased and the maturity of fibrous tissue formed at the enteropexy sites increased for all specimens over time. No statistically significant difference in breaking strength was observed between suture types at 1 week or 1 month.

Conclusion

In dogs, the formation and strength of intentionally created abdominal adhesions are not increased by use of chromic catgut.

Clinical Relevance

Selection of chromic catgut suture for use in surgical procedures where adhesions are desired is unwarranted. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:943–947)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research