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Abstract

Summary—During 2008, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,841 cases of rabies in animals and 2 cases in humans to the CDC, representing a 3.1% decrease from the 7,060 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2007. Approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,389 (34.9%) raccoons, 1,806 (26.4%) bats, 1,589 (23.2%) skunks, 454 (6.6%) foxes, 294 (4.3%) cats, 75 (1.1%) dogs, and 59 (0.9%) cattle. Compared with numbers of cases reported in 2007, numbers of cases reported in 2008 increased among cats, cattle, and skunks and decreased among dogs, raccoons, bats, and foxes. Numbers of rabid raccoons reported during 2008 decreased in 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic; overall number of rabid raccoons reported decreased by 8.6% during 2008, compared with 2007.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases involving skunks increased by 7.7% during 2008, compared with the number reported in 2007; this was the first increase in the number of reported rabid skunks since 2006. The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes decreased 1.7% in 2008, compared with 2007. The 1,806 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 6.7% decrease, compared with the number reported in 2007. One case of rabies in a dog imported from Iraq was reported at a quarantine station in New Jersey during 2008. Follow-up of potentially exposed animals in the same shipment did not reveal any secondary transmission. The United States remained free from dog-to-dog transmission of canine rabies virus variants. Total number of rabid dogs reported decreased 19.4% in 2008, compared with 2007.

Two human rabies cases were reported from California and Missouri during 2008. The California case involved a recent immigrant from Mexico and was attributed to a newly identified rabies virus variant most likely associated with Mexican free-tailed bats. The case in Missouri was attributed to a rabies virus variant associated with eastern pipistrelle and silver-haired bats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2009, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. Compared with 2008, numbers of rabid raccoons and bats that were reported decreased, whereas numbers of rabid skunks, foxes, cats, cattle, dogs, and horses that were reported increased.

Fewer rabid raccoons, compared with 2008, were reported by 12 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies is enzootic, and number of rabid raccoons decreased by 2.6% overall nationally. Despite a 10% decrease in the number of rabid bats that were reported and a decrease in the total number of bats submitted for testing, bats were the second most commonly submitted animal, behind cats, during 2009. The number of rabid skunks that were reported increased by 0.9% overall. The proportion of rabid skunks in which infection was attributed to the raccoon rabies virus variant decreased from 473% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009, resulting in a 12.7% increase in the number of rabid skunks infected with a skunk rabies virus variant. The number of rabid foxes increased 11.0% overall from the previous year.

Four cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Texas, Indiana, Virginia, and Michigan. The Texas case represented the first presumptive abortive human rabies case, with the patient recovering after the onset of symptoms without intensive care. The Indiana and Michigan cases were associated with bat rabies virus variants. The human rabies case in Virginia was associated with a canine rabies virus variant acquired during the patient's travel to India.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1 %), and 69 dogs (1.1 %). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1 % increase in the number of reported rabid cats.

Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

During 2007, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the CDC, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. Approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 cattle (0.8%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2006, cases in 2007 increased among dogs, bats, foxes, and skunks while decreases were reported among cattle, cats, and skunks. Increases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2007 were reported by 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic, and reported cases increased by 1.7% overall, compared with 2006.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2007 decreased by 1.1% from the number reported in 2006. Texas reported the greatest number (n = 362) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of animal rabies cases (969). No cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant were reported. The United States remains free of dog-to-dog transmission of canine rabies virus variants. The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes increased 14.5%, compared with 2006. Increases in the number of reported rabid foxes were attributable to greater numbers of foxes reported with the Arctic fox rabies virus variant in Alaska, the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant in Texas, and the raccoon rabies virus variant in Virginia. The 1,973 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 16.6% increase over numbers reported in 2006. Cases of rabies in dogs and in sheep and goats increased 17.7% and 18.2%, respectively, whereas cases reported in cattle, cats, and horses and mules decreased 30.5%, 13.8%, and 20.8%, respectively. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses decreased 51.5%, and rabies in domestic animals, presumably attributable to spillover infection from mongooses, increased 25%.

One human rabies case was reported from Minnesota during 2007. Although typing of the rabies virus variant in this case was not possible, an investigation of this case indicated a bat as the most likely source of exposure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association