Objective—To determine whether addition of a continuous,
local infusion of bupivacaine would improve
postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing total ear
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—16 dogs undergoing total ear canal ablation
(12 unilaterally and 4 bilaterally with > 1 month
Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to
receive morphine (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb]) at the end
of the procedure (10 procedures) or morphine and a
continuous, local infusion of bupivacaine (0.13 to 0.21
mg/kg/h [0.06 to 0.1 mg/lb/h]; 10 procedures). Dogs
were observed for 48 hours after surgery. Additional
doses of morphine were administered up to every 4
hours in dogs with signs of severe pain.
Results—Temperament, sedation, analgesia, and
cumulative pain scores were not significantly different
between groups any time after surgery. Recovery
score was significantly higher for dogs that received
bupivacaine than for control dogs 2 hours after extubation
but not at any other time. Serum cortisol concentration
was not significantly different between
groups at any time but, in both groups, was significantly
increased at the time of extubation, compared
with all other observation times. Total number of additional
doses of morphine administered was not significantly
different between groups. Bupivacaine was
not detected in the plasma of any of the dogs that
received the local bupivacaine infusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that addition of a continuous, local infusion of
bupivacaine did not significantly increase the degree of
postoperative analgesia in dogs that underwent total
ear canal ablation and were given morphine at the end
of surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:414–419)
Objective—To evaluate the effect of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits.
Animals—Five 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
Procedures—Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline isoflurane MAC was determined by use of the tail clamp technique. A loading dose of lidocaine (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was administered followed by a CRI of lidocaine at 50 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined. Another loading dose was administered, and the lidocaine CRI then was increased to 100 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined again. Plasma samples were obtained for lidocaine analysis after each MAC determination.
Results—Baseline isoflurane MAC was 2.09%, which was similar to previously reported values in this species. Lidocaine CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min induced significant reductions in MAC. The 50 μg/kg/min CRI resulted in a mean plasma lidocaine concentration of 0.654 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 10.5%. The 100 μg/kg/min CRI of lidocaine resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 1.578 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 21.7%. Lidocaine also induced significant decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. All cardiopulmonary variables were within reference ranges for rabbits anesthetized with inhalation anesthetics. No adverse effects were detected; all rabbits had an uncomplicated recovery from anesthesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lidocaine administered as a CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min decreased isoflurane MAC in rabbits. The IV administration of lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in anesthesia of rabbits.
Objective—To optimize methods for the use of computed tomography (CT) to assess pathologic changes in the lungs of calves and to determine the effect of treatment on lung consolidation.
Animals—10 male Holstein calves.
Procedures—Calves were anesthetized to facilitate CT imaging of the thorax. After initial images were obtained, pneumonia was induced in the calves by inoculation through a bronchoscope. Two calves were used in a preliminary study to refine the inoculation dose and optimize CT images. Four calves were administered florfenicol and 4 calves were untreated control animals. Serial images were obtained 24, 48, and 72 hours after inoculation. After final images were obtained, calves were euthanized, and lung consolidation was estimated by use of lung surface area scoring and water displacement. These estimates were compared with estimated lung consolidation obtained by use of CT.
Results—Calves had rapid disease progression. Percentage of lung consolidation was not significantly different between treatment groups for any of the estimation methods. Results of an ANOVA of the 3 assessment methods indicated significant differences among methods. Estimates of the percentage of lung consolidation obtained by use of surface area scoring and CT correlated well, whereas water displacement estimates correlated poorly with other methods of consolidation estimation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the correlation with other methods for estimation of lung consolidation, CT has the potential to be used to monitor disease progression in calves with experimentally induced respiratory tract disease.
To determine perioperative analgesia associated with oral administration of a novel methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation in dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy.
43 healthy female dogs.
Dogs were randomly assigned to receive the methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation at 1 of 2 dosages (0.5 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 0.125 mg/kg, respectively, or 1.0 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 0.25 mg/kg, respectively, PO, q 12 h, starting the evening before surgery; n = 15 each) or methadone alone (0.5 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h starting the morning of surgery; 13). Dogs were sedated with acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. A standard ovariohysterectomy was performed by experienced surgeons. Sedation and pain severity (determined with the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale—short form [GCPS-SF]) were scored for 48 hours after surgery. Rescue analgesia was to be provided if the GCPS-SF score was > 6. Dogs also received carprofen starting the day after surgery.
None of the dogs required rescue analgesia. The highest recorded GCPS-SF score was 4. A significant difference in GCPS-SF score among groups was identified at 6:30 am the day after surgery, but not at any other time. The most common adverse effect was perioperative vomiting, which occurred in 11 of the 43 dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Oral administration of a methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation at either of 2 dosages every 12 hours (3 total doses) was as effective as SC administration of methadone alone every 4 hours (4 total doses) in dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Incorporation of naltrexone in the novel formulation may provide a deterrent to human opioid abuse or misuse.
To assess the pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of injectable methadone with the pharmacokinetic enhancer fluconazole (methadone-fluconazole), compared with the standard formulation of injectable methadone, in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. We hypothesized that 2 doses of methadone-fluconazole would provide 24 hours of postoperative analgesia.
3 purpose-bred dogs (pharmacokinetic preliminary study) and 42 female dogs from local shelters (clinical trial) were included.
Pharmacokinetics were preliminarily determined. Clinical trial client-owned dogs were blocked by body weight into treatment groups: standard methadone group (methadone standard formulation, 0.5 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h; n = 20) or methadone-fluconazole group (0.5 mg/kg methadone with 2.5 mg/kg fluconazole, SC, repeated once at 6 h; n = 22). All dogs also received acepromazine, propofol, and isoflurane. Surgeries were performed by experienced surgeons, and dogs were monitored perioperatively using the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale–Short Form (CMPS-SF) and sedation scales. Evaluators were masked to treatment.
Findings from pharmacokinetic preliminary studies supported that 2 doses of methadone-fluconazole provide 24 hours of drug exposure. The clinical trial had no significant differences in treatment failures or postoperative CMPS-SF scores between treatments. One dog (methadone-fluconazole group) had CMPS-SF > 6 and received rescue analgesia. All dogs had moderate sedation or less by 1 hour (methadone-fluconazole group) or 4 hours (standard methadone group) postoperatively. Sedation was completely resolved in all dogs the day after surgery.
Methadone-fluconazole with twice-daily administration was well tolerated and provided effective postoperative analgesia for dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Clinical compliance and postoperative pain control may improve with an effective twice-daily formulation.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.
RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.