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  • Author or Editor: David C. Bolin x
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Objective—To identify Actinobacillus spp isolates recovered from fetuses and pericardial fluid from horses affected with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) and determine whether these bacterial species are the same as those isolated from clinically normal horses.

Sample Population—Isolates of actinobacilli recovered from 18 horses with pericarditis and 109 fetuses aborted by mares affected by MRLS.

ProceduresActinobacillus spp isolates were identified to the level of species or subspecies by use of conventional phenotypic tests and biochemical and enzyme test kits. The 16S rRNA gene from selected isolates was amplified, purified, and sequenced. Sequence data were compared with sequence data for actinobacilli in GenBank.

Results—Of the 109 isolates obtained from fetuses, 14 were Actinobacillus equuli subsp equuli, 65 were A equuli subsp haemolyticus, 28 were Bisgaard taxon 10–like bacterium, and 2 were Actinobacillus genomospecies 1. Of the 18 isolates from horses with pericarditis, 4 were A equuli subsp equuli, 13 were A equuli subsp haemolyticus, and 1 was Bisgaard taxon 10–like bacterium. Comparisons with published data and GenBank data revealed that the isolates recovered from horses with MRLS were the same as those isolated from the oral cavity or alimentary tract of healthy horses.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceActinobacillus spp isolates recovered from fetuses and pericardial fluid samples of horses affected by MRLS in 2001 to 2003 were identical to Actinobacillus spp found in the oral cavity and alimentary tracts of healthy horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the extent of leptospirosis in persons exposed to infected swine, confirm the source of disease, define risk factors for infection, and identify means for preventing additional infections during an outbreak in Missouri in 1998.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—240 people and 1,700 pigs.

Procedure—An epidemiologic investigation was conducted of people exposed to infected pigs from the University of Missouri-Columbia swine herd. The investigation included review of health of the pigs, a crosssectional study of the people handling the pigs, serologic testing of human and porcine sera, and risk-factor analysis for leptospirosis within the human population.

Results—Serologic testing of samples collected at the time of the investigation indicated that 59% of the pigs had titers to leptospires, denoting exposure. Of the 240 people in the exposed study population, 163 (68%) were interviewed, and of these, 110 (67%) submitted a blood sample. Nine (8%) cases of leptospirosis were confirmed by serologic testing. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis included smoking (odds ratio [OR], 14.4; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.39 to 137.74) and drinking beverages (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.30) while working with infected pigs. Washing hands after work was protective (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.81).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis is a risk for swine producers and slaughterhouse workers, and may be prevented through appropriate hygiene, sanitation, and animal husbandry. It is essential to educate people working with animals or animal tissues about measures for reducing the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:676–682)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association