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Summary

Biomechanical strength and stiffness of 2 fixation treatments used to repair acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis were evaluated in bone specimens from immature dogs. A servohydraulic testing machine was used to create slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 7 pairs of femurs by shearing the capital femoral epiphysis along the physis in a craniocaudal direction. The slip was reduced and repaired with one 3.5-mm-diameter screw placed in lag fashion or 2 double-pointed, 1.6-mm (0.062 inch)-diameter smooth pins and retested. Strength and stiffness of each intact femur (which served as the control) and repaired femur were compared. Results of the study indicated that the failure strength of 2-pin fixation was significantly (P < 0.05) weaker than its control and the 1-screw fixation. There was no significant difference between failure strength of the 1-screw fixation and its control. The stiffness of 1-screw and 2-pin fixations was not significantly different, compared with each other, but was significantly (P < 0.05) less, compared with their respective controls.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The biomechanical strength and stiffness of 3 fixation techniques used to repair acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis were evaluated in bone specimens from immature dogs. A servohydraulic testing machine was used to create slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 9 pairs of femurs by shearing the capital femoral epiphysis along the physis in a craniocaudal direction. The slip was reduced and repaired with 1, 2, or 3 double-pointed, 1.6-mm (0.062-inch) smooth pin(s) and retested. The strength and stiffness of each intact femur (which served as the control) and repaired femur were compared. Results of the study indicated that differences among the failure strengths of 1- and 2-pin fixations and their respective controls were not significant; however, the 3-pin fixation was 29% stronger than its control and was 60 and 45% stronger than the 1- and 2-pin fixations, respectively. One- and 2-pin fixations were 34 and 24% less stiff than their respective controls, whereas the stiffness of the 3-pin fixation was similar to its control. The 2- and 3-pin fixations were 48 and 76% stiffer, respectfully, than the 1-pin fixation, but were not significantly different, compared with each other.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • Anatomic changes that develop with splenic torsion, including stretching of gastric ligaments, may predispose dogs to the development of gastric dilatation-volvulus because of increased mobility of the stomach.

  • Prophylactic gastropexy at the time of splenectomy may reduce the chance of future gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine long-term outcome of dogs with neoplastic and nonneoplastic pericardial disease that undergo pericardiectomy.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

22 dogs.

Procedure

Dogs that underwent pericardiectomy and in which the diagnosis had been confirmed histologically were included. Data collected from each record included signalment, history, clinical signs, results of diagnostic evaluations, operative management, postoperative complications, histologic diagnosis, and outcome. Dogs were grouped on the basis of underlying cause of pericardial disease (neoplastic vs nonneoplastic), and survival times were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier analyses.

Results

9 dogs had neoplastic pericardial disease (chemodectoma, 4; hemangiosarcoma, 2; malignant mesothelioma, 2; lymphoblastic lymphoma, 1). Thirteen dogs had nonneoplastic pericardial disease (benign idiopathic pericarditis, 10; lymphocytic-plasmacytic pericarditis, 2; osseous metaplasia of unknown cause, 1). Thoracic radiography and echocardiography were the most specific methods for diagnosis of pericardial effusion. Pleural effusion was the most common postoperative complication (8/22 dogs). Prevalence of postoperative complications was not associated with underlying cause of pericardial disease, surgical approach, or surgical procedure (subtotal vs total pericardiectomy). Median survival time of dogs with neoplastic disease (52 days) was significantly shorter than median survival time of dogs with nonneoplastic disease (792 days). Dogs that developed pleural effusion > 30 days after pericardiectomy had a poor prognosis for survival.

Clinical Implications

Radiography and echocardiography are useful for diagnosis of pericardial effusion in dogs. Dogs with neoplastic pericardial disease have a significantly shorter survival time than do dogs with nonneoplastic pericardial disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:736–740)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine biomechanical and biochemical properties of the medial meniscus in a semistable stifle model and in clinical patients and to determine the effect of canine recombinant somatotropin hormone (STH) on those properties.

Animals—22 healthy adult dogs and 12 dogs with meniscal damage secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture.

Procedure—The CCL was transected in 15 dogs, and stifles were immediately stabilized. Implants releasing 4 mg of STH/d were placed in 7 dogs, and 8 received sham implants. Seven dogs were used as untreated controls. Force plate analysis was performed before surgery and 2, 5, and 10 weeks after surgery. After 10 weeks, dogs were euthanatized, and menisci from surgical and contralateral stifles were harvested. The torn caudal horn of the medial meniscus in dogs with CCL rupture comprised the clinical group. Creep indentation determined aggregate modulus (HA), Poisson's ratio (v), permeability (k), and percentage recovery (%R). Water content (%W), collagen content (C), sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content, and collagen type-I (cI) and -II (cII) immunoreactivity were also determined.

Results—Surgical and clinical groups had lower HA, k, %R, C, sGAG, cI, and cII and higher %W than the nonsurgical group. Surgical stifles with greater weight bearing had stiffer menisci than those bearing less weight. Collagen content was higher in the surgical group receiving STH than the surgical group without STH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute stabilization and moderate weight bearing of the CCL-deficient stifle appear to protect stiffness of the medial meniscus. Normal appearing menisci from CCL-deficient stifles can have alterations in biomechanical and biochemical properties, which may contribute to meniscal failure. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:419–426)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the impact of partial immersion in water on vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vGRF distribution in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Weight placed on each limb of each dog was measured 3 times (1 scale/limb). Dogs were then immersed in water to the level of the tarsal, stifle, and hip joints, and vGRFs were measured. Coefficients of variation for triplicate measurements were calculated. Mixed-effects ANOVAs were used to compare the vGRF for thoracic versus pelvic limbs and the vGRF at various immersion levels as well as the vGRF distributions among limbs at various immersion levels.

Results—Mean ± SD vGRF before immersion was 249 ± 34 N. It was significantly decreased by 9% after immersion to the tarsal joints (227 ± 32 N), by 15% after immersion to the stifle joints (212 ± 21 N), and by 62% after immersion to the hip joints (96 ± 20 N). The vGRFs were significantly higher for the thoracic limbs than for the pelvic limbs before immersion and at all immersion levels. Dogs placed 64% of their weight on the thoracic limbs before immersion. That ratio did not differ significantly after immersion to the tarsus (64%) or stifle (63%) joints, but was significantly larger after immersion to the hip joints (71%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—vGRF decreased as the depth of immersion increased. The thoracic limb-to-pelvic limb vGRF ratio was unchanged in dogs after immersion to the tarsal or stifle joints, but it increased after immersion to the hip joints.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To use an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in 3 dimensions.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, 16 anatomic and tracking markers were used to define the center of rotation for the pelvic limb joints and a kinematic model was created to describe the motion of the pelvic limb. Kinetic, kinematic, and morphometric data were combined so that an inverse dynamics method could be used to define angular displacement, joint moment, and power of the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Results—Movement and energy patterns were described for the hip, stifle, and hock joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of the 3-D movement of the pelvic limb can be used to better understand its motion, moment, and energy patterns in healthy dogs and provide a referent with which gaits of dogs with pelvic limb injuries before and after surgical repair or rehabilitation can be compared and characterized. This information can then be used to guide decisions regarding treatment options for dogs with pelvic limb injuries.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the 3-D motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)–deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or lateral fabellar–tibial suture (LFS) stabilization by use of an inverse dynamics method.

Animals—6 clinically normal dogs and 19 dogs with CCL-deficient stifle joints that had undergone TPLO (n = 13) or LFS (6) stabilization at a mean of 4 and 8 years, respectively, prior to evaluation.

Procedures—For all dogs, an inverse dynamics method was used to describe the motion of the pelvic limbs in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Motion and energy patterns for the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in all 3 planes were compared among the 3 groups.

Results—Compared with corresponding variables for clinically normal dogs, the hip joint was more extended at the beginning of the stance phase in the sagittal plane for dogs that had a TPLO performed and the maximum power across the stifle joint in the frontal plane was greater for dogs that had an LFS procedure performed. Otherwise, variables in all planes were similar among the 3 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gait characteristics of the pelvic limb did not differ between dogs that underwent TPLO and dogs that underwent an LFS procedure for CCL repair and were similar to those of clinically normal dogs. Both TPLO and LFS successfully provided long-term stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints of dogs with minimal alterations in gait.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Patient factors may alter laser photon attenuation, but these factors have not been adequately evaluated in live dogs. Our objective was to evaluate class IV laser beam attenuation (LBA) by canine tissues using a colorimeter to evaluate melanin and erythema indices. We hypothesized that greater melanin and erythema indices and unclipped hair would increase LBA, and these properties would vary among tissues.

ANIMALS

20 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Between October 1 and December 1, 2017, colorimeter measurements and LBA in various tissues before and after clipping overlying hair were evaluated. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Statistical significance was set at P < .05.

RESULTS

LBA was greater in unclipped (98.6 ± 0.4%) than clipped hair (94.6 ± 0.4%). The least LBA occurred in the pinna (93%) while the greatest occurred in the caudal vertebra (100%) and caudal semitendinosis muscles (100%). Each mm of tissue thickness resulted in LBA of 11.6%. Each unit increase in melanin index resulted in a 3.3% increase in LBA. There was no association of LBA with erythema index.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated LBA by different tissues in live dogs using a colorimeter to evaluate melanin and erythema indices. We recommend clipping hair prior to photobiomodulation to decrease laser beam attenuation and using increased laser doses in thicker tissues and dogs with high melanin content. The colorimeter may be helpful in customizing patient treatment dosimetry. Future studies are necessary to determine therapeutic laser doses for adequate photobiomodulation effects.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of recombinant canine somatotropin (STH) on the metabolic and histologic aspects of bone healing in dogs, using an unstable os-tectomy gap model.

Animals

8 mature dogs.

Procedure

A 3-mm ostectomy of the mid portion of the radius was performed in all dogs. Implants designed to release STH at a rate of 4 mg/d were placed SC in 4 dogs (treated group [STHG]), and another 4 dogs received no implants (control group ICG]). Serum concentrations of STH, insulin-like growth factor I, and osteocalcin were de-termined before surgery, and weekly for 8 weeks. Scinti-graphic evaluation of the ostectomy sites was performed before surgery, and at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 after surgery. Histologic evaluation of the ostectomy sites was performed at the conclusion of the study at week 8.

Results

Significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum STH, insulin-like growth factor I, and osteocalcin concentrations were observed in dogs of the STHG during the 8-week study period. Scintigraphic activity of the ostectomy sites was increased in dogs of both groups, but dogs of the STHG had significantly (P < 0.05) greater activity, compared with dogs of the CG. Coalescence of nuclear activity across the ostectomy site was observed in dogs of the STHG, whereas dogs of the CG maintained 2 distinct areas of metabolic activity. Histologically, dogs of the STHG had bridging calluses with areas of endochondral ossification and ongoing osteogenic activity, whereas dogs of the CG had nonossified fibrocartilage typical of nonunion fractures.

Conclusion

Using the ostectomy gap model, recombinant canine STH enhanced the metabolic and histologic aspects of bone healing in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1395–1401)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research