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  • Author or Editor: Danielle A. Mzyk x
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OBJECTIVE To compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin between 3-week-old (preweaned) and 6-month-old (weaned) calves and to characterize the distribution of tulathromcyin into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) of preweaned and weaned calves following SC administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg).

ANIMALS 8 healthy 3-week-old and 8 healthy 6-month-old Holstein steers.

PROCEDURES A jugular catheter and SC ultrafiltration probe were aseptically placed in the neck of each calf before tulathromycin administration. Blood, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected at predetermined times before and after tulathromycin administration for quantification of drug concentration. A urea dilution method was used to estimate tulathromycin concentration in PELF from that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was determined by in vitro methods. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined by a 2-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters and drug concentrations were compared between preweaned and weaned calves.

RESULTS Clearance and volume of distribution per fraction of tulathromycin absorbed were significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Maximum PELF tulathromycin concentration was significantly greater than the maximum plasma and maximum ISF tulathromycin concentrations in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age affected multiple pharmacokinetic parameters of tulathromycin, likely owing to physiologic changes as calves mature from preruminants to ruminants. Knowledge of those changes may be useful in the development of studies to evaluate potential dose adjustments during treatment of calves with respiratory tract disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the influence of stage of lactation on the pharmacokinetics in milk when multiple doses of meloxicam were administered alone or in combination with gabapentin to postpartum (PP) and mid-lactation (ML) cows.


8 postpartum and 8 mid-lactation dairy cows.


Cows were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 8) which included 4 PP cows and 4 ML cows. Group I received only 6 oral daily doses of meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg for 6 doses). Group II received 6 oral daily doses of co-administered meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg) and gabapentin (20 mg/kg) for 6 doses. Meloxicam and gabapentin were quantified in plasma and milk samples by ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and the pharmacokinetic analysis of milk and plasma was performed using a non-compartmental approach.


Regardless of lactation status, dairy cattle administered multiple doses of meloxicam and/or gabapentin showed low drug residue concentrations and little accumulation in milk. The terminal plasma half-life of meloxicam was significantly increased (P < .02) in PP cows (12.9 hr) compared to ML cows (9.4 hr). The apparent terminal half-life in milk for meloxicam and gabapentin was not affected by stage of lactation. Co-administration of gabapentin did not alter plasma or milk concentrations of meloxicam.


The results of this study suggest that milk from cows treated with multiple doses of meloxicam alone or in combination with gabapentin will have low drug concentrations and falls below our reported limit of detection for meloxicam or gabapentin 120 and 60 hours respectively, following the final dose regardless of their stage of lactation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association