Objective—To determine outcome in dogs and cats that underwent extensive (ie, > 50%) resection of the small intestine and identify factors associated with outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—13 dogs and 7 cats.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained.
Results—In all 7 cats and in 8 of the 13 dogs, extensive intestinal resection was performed because of a foreign body. Mean ± SD estimated percentage of intestine that was removed was 68 ± 14% (range, 50% to 90%). Two dogs were euthanized 3 days after surgery because of dehiscence of the surgical site and development of septic peritonitis; 1 dog died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 5 days after surgery. The remaining 10 dogs and 7 cats were discharged from the hospital, and follow-up information was available for 15 of the 17. Median survival time was 828 days, and 12 of the 15 animals for which long-term follow-up information was available had good outcomes. However, none of the factors examined, including percentage of intestine resected, were significantly associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs and cats that underwent extensive resection of the small intestine had a good outcome. The amount of intestine resected was not associated with outcome. These data may be useful in providing prognostic information in cases of extensive small intestinal resection.
Objective—To determine history, results of diagnostic testing, surgical findings, complications, and outcome for dogs with liver lobe torsion (LLT).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—12 dogs (1 with 2 episodes).
Procedure—Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical and histologic findings, complications, and hospitalization time were evaluated.
Results—The most common clinical signs were nonspecific abnormalities (eg, vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia) of acute or chronic duration. All dogs were large-breed dogs (median body weight, 37.2 kg [82 lb]). Biochemical abnormalities included high alanine amino-transferase (n = 12) and aspartate aminotransferase (11) activities. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were supportive of the diagnosis in 5 of 8 cases. Affected lobes included the left medial lobe (n = 4), left lateral lobe (3), papillary process of the caudate lobe (2), caudate lobe (1), and right lateral lobe (1). Exploratory celiotomy and liver lobectomy were performed in 12 of 13 cases, and in 11 of those 12 cases, the dog survived.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that development of nonspecific clinical signs of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia in conjunction with high serum hepatic enzyme activities and mature neutrophilia in a medium-sized or large-breed dog should increase the index of suspicion for LLT. Abdominal ultrasonography with Doppler assessment may be useful in establishing the diagnosis. The long-term outcome for dogs that survive the hospitalization period is excellent.
Objectives—To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—73 client-owned hospitalized dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded.
Results—Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.
Objective—To investigate the prescription of analgesic
drugs to hospitalized critically ill dogs and cats
and determine compliance of nursing staff in administering
the prescribed analgesics.
Animals—272 dogs and 79 cats hospitalized in an
intensive care unit during a 2-month period.
Procedure—Patient treatment orders were examined
daily for details regarding prescribed and administered
Results—A mean of 39% of cats and dogs in the
intensive care unit were prescribed analgesic drugs
each day, the most common of which were opioids.
Local anesthetic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs, and ketamine were prescribed less frequently.
Cats were less likely than dogs to receive
analgesics after traumatic injury, but the difference
was not significant. There was no difference between
species in frequency of prescription of analgesic
drugs after surgery. Most patients were prescribed a
single class of analgesic drug; only 13% had orders
for multiple analgesics. Of the patients for which analgesics
were prescribed, 64% received them exactly
as prescribed, 23% had at least 1 reduction in dosing,
and 13% had at least 1 increase in dosing. When a
decrease in dosing occurred, the drugs were opioids
in each instance, whereas when drug dosing was
increased, the drugs were of various types.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Discrepancies
sometimes existed between the dose of analgesic prescribed
and that administered. This appeared to occur
primarily because of concerns about adverse effects of
opioid drugs. Strategies to reduce these effects may
improve pain management in critically ill dogs and cats.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:425–429)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of obesity on pulmonary function in healthy adult dogs.
Animals—36 Retrievers without cardiopulmonary disease.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of body condition score (1 through 9): nonobese (score, 4.5 to 5.5), moderately obese (score, 6.0 to 6.5), and markedly obese (score, 7.0 to 9.0). Pulmonary function tests performed in conscious dogs included spirometry and measurement of inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance (Raw) and specific Raw (sRaw) during normal breathing and during hyperpnea via head-out whole-body plethysmography. Functional residual capacity (FRC; measured by use of helium dilution), diffusion capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and arterial blood gas variables (PaO2, PaCO2, and alveolar-arterial gradient) were assessed.
Results—During normal breathing, body condition score did not influence airway function, DLCO, or arterial blood gas variables. During hyperpnea, expiratory sRaw was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs than nonobese dogs and Raw was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs, compared with nonobese and moderately obese dogs. Although not significantly different, markedly obese dogs had a somewhat lower FRC, compared with other dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, obesity appeared to cause airflow limitation during the expiratory phase of breathing, but this was only evident during hyperpnea. This suggests that flow limitation is dynamic and likely occurs in the distal (rather than proximal) portions of the airways. Further studies are warranted to localize the flow-limited segment and understand whether obesity is linked to exercise intolerance via airway dys-function in dogs.