Objective—To describe the ultrasonographic and
quantitative histologic effect of injecting 2% iodine in
almond oil (IAO) and ethanolamine oleate (EO) in the
medial and middle patellar ligaments of horses and to
determine whether a difference in response exists
between IAO and EO treatment.
Animals—10 healthy horses.
Procedure—In 5 horses, the medial and middle patellar
ligaments of 1 limb were injected with EO, whereas
IAO was injected in the medial and middle patellar
ligaments of another 5 horses. Ultrasonographic evaluation
was performed on the experimental and control
limb before injection of IAO and EO and prior to
euthanasia to determine cross-sectional area and
evaluate fiber pattern. The patellar ligaments were
harvested 2 weeks after injection and examined histologically
to evaluate the inflammatory response,
fibroplasia, and chondroid metaplasia.
Results—Injection of the patellar ligaments with IAO
resulted in a greater increase in cross-sectional area
on ultrasonography than EO. Both agents caused a
decrease in echogenicity of the ligament.
Histologically, significantly greater infiltration of
inflammatory cells and fibroplasia developed after
injection with IAO, compared with EO. Both agents
resulted in significantly greater fibroplasia relative to
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of
the medial and middle patellar ligaments with IAO
induces more severe inflammation and fibroplasia
than EO. Maturation of the inflammatory and fibrous
response may contribute to resolution or attenuation
of upward fixation of the patella by subsequent stiffening
of the ligaments. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To compare the effects of an orally administered
corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid
(flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist
(zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine),
and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype
in cats with experimentally induced asthma.
Animals—6 cats with asthma experimentally
induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA).
Procedures—A randomized, crossover design was
used to assess changes in the percentage of
eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway
hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype
determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum
and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA
determined by use of ELISAs.
Results—Mean ± SE eosinophil percentages in BALF
when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 ±
2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 ± 1.7%) were significantly
lower than for the control treatment (33.7 ± 11.1%).
We did not detect significant differences in airway
hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers
among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in
serum was significantly lower when cats were treated
with prednisone (25.5 ± 5.4%), compared with values
for the control treatment (63.6 ± 12.9%); no other
significant differences were observed in content of
BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered
and inhaled corticosteroids decreased
eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with
experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration
of prednisone decreased the content of BGAspecific
IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic
immunologic effects were detected among
treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered
as an alternate method for decreasing airway
inflammation in cats with asthma. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate changes in cysteinyl
leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally
Animals—19 cats with experimentally induced asthma
and 5 control cats.
Procedure—Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass
or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features
of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing,
evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and
pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit
for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative
analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and
BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured,
and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LTto-
TP ratios were calculated.
Results—Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not
differ significantly between control cats and allergensensitized
cats before or after sensitization and challenge
exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or
allergen, respectively. In BALF, the mean LT-to-TP ratio
of control cats did not differ significantly before or
after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline.
Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were
significantly lower than control cats at all time points,
whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly
among the various time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant
increases in urinary LT concentrations were
detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized
cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations
appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring
the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats.
The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to
their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease
free LT concentrations deserves further study.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1449–1453)