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Objective

To determine whether selected factors were associated with finishing status in a long-distance sled dog race.

Design

Prospective, observational study.

Animals

248 dogs participating in the 1994 Iditarod Trail sled race that were members of 13 teams that finished the race. Dogs were not selected randomly, but were members of teams that were easily accessible for examination before the race. The proportion of teams that were examined that finished the race (14/17) was similar to the proportion of teams that were not examined that finished the race (36/41).

Procedure

Age, sex, body conformation (weight, length, and thoracic width and circumference), cardiac variables (heart rate, natural logarithm of heart period variance, PR interval, QRS duration, QT index, R wave amplitude in leads II and V3, mean electrical axis, presence of cardiac arrhythmias suggestive of myocardial disease), and athletic ranking as assessed by the musher were compared between dogs that finished the race (n = 128) and dogs that did not finish (n = 120).

Results

The only factor found to differ significantly (P < 0.05) between finishers and nonfinishers was athletic ranking as assessed by the musher. Athletic rank and QRS duration or QRS duration normalized for body weight were identified by means of logistic regression as variables associated (P < 0.15) with finishing status. There was a significant (P < 0.0001), but weak (R 2 = 0.18), linear relationship between race time and mean QRS duration for each team.

Clinical Implications

Athletic ranking as assessed by the musher was the most important of the studied variables in determining finishing status, whereas age, sex, body conformation, and body weight were unimportant. Duration of the QRS was of minor importance in determining finishing status. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 206:879–882)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To assess the cardiovascular effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonist medetomidine in healthy cats anesthetized with 2% isoflurane.

Animals

11 clinically normal cats.

Procedure

Cats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and catheters were inserted for measurement of aortic, left ventricular, and right atrial pressures. For data collection, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was reduced to 2%, and end-tidal CO2 was maintained at 35 to 40 mm of Hg by use of positive-pressure ventilation. After measurement of baseline data, medetomidine (0.01 mg/kg of body weight, IM) was administered and data were collected continuously for 75 minutes. At the end of data collection, incisions were closed and cats were allowed to recover from anesthesia.

Results

Medetomidine significantly increased mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. The increase in mean arterial pressure was maximal at 17.8 ± 7 minutes after medetomidine administration. Medetomidine also increased left ventricular peak systolic pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and right atrial pressure. Medetomidine significantly decreased heart rate and mean aortic flow.

Conclusions

The low dosage of medetomidine (0.01 mg/kg, IM) promoted severe vasoconstriction in isoflurane-anesthetized cats, and resulted in sustained increases in left ventricular preload and afterload. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:509–513)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare sensitivity of a complement fixation (CF) test and competitive ELISA (cELISA) for detection of Anaplasma marginale in experimentally infected steers.

Animals—40 crossbred (Angus-Simmental) steers.

Procedures—Steers were inoculated with 2.6 × 109 A marginale–infected erythrocytes (day 0). Blood samples were collected on days 9, 13, 20, 28, 34, 41, 61, 96, 126, and 156 days after inoculation. The percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) was determined by microscopic examination of stained blood films, and sera were evaluated with the CF test and cELISA by use of USDA-approved methods. Sensitivity and agreement (κ statistic) between the 2 methods were determined. Persistent infections were confirmed by inoculation of blood obtained from infected steers into susceptible, splenectomized calves.

Results—9 days after inoculation, sensitivity of the cELISA was 47.5%, whereas the CF test failed to identify seropositive steers. After day 13, sensitivity of the cELISA and CF test was 100% and 20%, respectively. During peak parasitemia (day 20), sensitivity of the cELISA and CF test was 100%. Thereafter, sensitivity of the CF test fluctuated between 7.5% and 37.5%, whereas sensitivity of the cELISA remained at 100%. Overall sensitivity of the cELISA and CF test was 94.8% and 26.5%, respectively (κ statistic, 0.039).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The cELISA had superior sensitivity for serologic detection of A marginale.The CF test and cELISA each had a high percentage of false-negative results during the prepatent period. These findings are relevant for export certification and anaplasmosis prevention or eradication programs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine electrocardiographic characteristics of endurance-trained Alaskan sled dogs.

Design

Case series.

Animals

319 Alaskan sled dogs entered to compete in the 1994 Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.

Procedure

ECG were recorded while dogs were standing and were analyzed digitally.

Results

Amplitudes of P waves (median, 0.40 mV; fifth to 95th percentile range, 0.11 to 0.61 mV) and R waves in lead II (median, 3.02 mV; fifth to 95th percentile range, 1.49 to 4.40 mV) were high; durations of P waves in lead II (median, 61 milliseconds; fifth to 95th percentile range, 36 to 96 milliseconds), QRS complexes (median, 64 milliseconds; fifth to 95th percentile range, 52 to 80 milliseconds), and QT intervals (median, 236 milliseconds; fifth to 95th percentile range, 208 to 277 milliseconds) were prolonged. Median value for mean axis of ventricular depolarization was 57° (fifth to 95th percentile range, 19 to 90°). Atrial and ventricular premature depolarizations were observed in 3 (0.9%) and 4 (1.3%) of 319 dogs, respectively, and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia was detected in 1 (0.3%).

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that electrocardiographic characteristics of endurance-trained Alaskan sled dogs differ from those reported for nonsled dogs, probably as a result of effects of endurance training on heart size. Some of these characteristics could be mistaken as evidence of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1138–1141)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in 37 dogs by finding ehrlichial morulae in 0.1 to 26.2% of their blood neutrophils and eosinophils. All 37 dogs had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Titer to Ehrlichia canis was determined in sera from 31 of the 37 dogs; 25 dogs had titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. In the other 6 dogs, titer to E canis was <1:10. The most common hematologic abnormality in these dogs, other than rickettsiemia, was thrombocytopenia.

Granulocytes infected with ehrlichial organisms were not found in another 10 dogs that had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Of these 10 dogs, 3 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:40 to 1:320. Titer in the other 7 dogs was < 1:10.

Ehrlichial morulae were not found in the granulocytes of 18 healthy dogs. Of these 18 dogs, 9 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. Titer in the other 9 dogs was <1:10

Titer to Borrelia burgdorferi was determined in dogs with granulocytic ehrlichiosis, arthritic dogs without detected rickettsiemia, and in healthy dogs. Low titer determined by 2 laboratories was considered to be nonspecific reaction in all 3 groups of dogs and, thus, did not indicate that the arthritic disorders were attributable to canine borreliosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Doxorubicin was encapsulated in canine erythrocytes, treated with 0.32% glutaraldehyde, and administered at a dosage equivalent to 30 mg of free doxorubicin/m2 of body surface area to dogs with diagnosis of lymphosarcoma. Compared with administration of free doxorubicin, this method of drug delivery substantially reduced peak plasma concentration and prolonged higher plasma concentration of doxorubicin. As such, this method was comparable to continuous iv infusion. Previous studies have indicated this method’s potential for reduction in toxic side effects, particularly cardiotoxicosis, while allowing higher total doses of doxorubicin to be administered. In this study, doxorubicin encapsulated in glutaraldehyde-treated erythrocytes induced a triphasic exponential decay of doxorubicin from plasma, the highest relative contribution to the total area of the curve being the terminal phase. The treatment was effective in inducing complete and partial remissions of lymphosarcoma, with minimal acute toxicosis and no evidence of cardiotoxicosis. However, substantial, unanticipated, chronic, nonregenerative myelosuppression developed, and was most strikingly expressed as profound thrombocytopenia. Efforts to ameliorate or circumvent this toxic effect will be required prior to further consideration of this doxorubicin delivery system for treatment of systemic neoplasia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research