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To compare a prescrotal castration technique with the conventional bilateral scrotal incision technique for castration of llamas.


Prospective randomized controlled trial.


10 clinically normal, sexually intact male llamas.


Five llamas were castrated by use of a 5-cm skin incision located 2 to 3 cm lateral to the ventral midline and approximately 15 cm cranial to the scrotum, which was closed with absorbable suture material to allow primary healing. Five other llamas were castrated via a more conventional technique, with a 5-cm scrotal incision positioned directly over each testis, which was allowed to heal by second intention.


The prescrotal technique required significantly more time to complete; however, no additional anesthesia was required to complete the longer procedure. Llamas castrated with the prescrotal technique required less aftercare and had less incisional pain when the area was palpated.

Clinical Implications—

Both techniques are safe and effective. Some clients, however, find the prescrotal technique more aesthetically acceptable. The prescrotal technique may be more clinically important where fly control is difficult. U Am Vet Med Assoc 1996:208:261-262)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To describe 3 laparoscopic approaches for, and the normal laparoscopic anatomy of, the abdomen in adult llamas and to evaluate the effects of laparoscopy in those llamas.


Prospective clinical trial.


Six adult castrated male llamas.


After induction of general anesthesia, 3 surgical approaches to the abdomen were performed: left paralumbar, ventral midline, and right paralumbar. The abdomen was systematically examined, and anatomic features described. After recovery from anesthesia, all llamas were examined daily for 10 days and CBC was repeated 24, 72, and 120 hours after laparoscopy.


Laparoscopy was successfully performed in all llamas by use of the ventral midline and right paralumbar approaches. The laparoscope was inadvertently placed into the left retroperitoneal space in 1 of the 6 llamas when the left paralumbar approach was used. Also, hemorrhage into the abdomen limited the view from the left side in another llama. Various approaches allowed viewing of the first and third forestomach compartments, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, ileum, proximal loop of the ascending colon, spiral colon, and urinary bladder. Postoperative findings included subcutaneous emphysema and edema. Mean WBC count peaked 24 hours after surgery (mean, 23,500 cells/μl). Generally, neutrophil count increased and lymphocyte count decreased during the 120 hours after surgery.

Clinical Implications

Laparoscopy may be used for differentiation of medical and surgical lesions in the abdomen of llamas. The site for laparoscopy should be chosen on the basis of the most likely site of the suspected lesion.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether an estradiol-progesterone (EP) growth implant would have an effect on febrile responses and on the catabolic component of Eimeria bovis infection.


27 Holstein bull calves.


Calves were assigned to treatment groups as: control (n = 5), EP implant (EP, n = 5), E bovis-inoculated (coccidia: C, n = 7), pair fed (n = 4), or EP plus E bovis-inoculated coccidia (EP/C, n = 6) groups. Calves were provided subcutaneous EP implants at 8 weeks of age, and were inoculated with 2 × 105 oocysts of E bovis at 11 weeks of age. Body weight was measured on postinoculation day (PID) 0, 14, and 28. Rectal temperature and food intake were determined and fecal samples were collected daily from PID 15 to 28. Blood samples were collected on PID 24 for analysis of CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ antigens and plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentration. Blood samples were collected at 15-minute intervals for measurement of pulsatile growth hormone release.


Group-EP/C calves had fever for 2 days versus 5 days for group-C calves (P < 0.05). These calves had diarrhea for fewer days than did their group-C counterparts (P < 0.05). Fibrinogen and glucose values were high in group-C (P < 0.05) but not group-EP/C calves. The latter had positive weight gain from PID 14 to 28, whereas group-C calves had weight loss (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentration was reduced by infection (P < 0.05). EP-treated noninfected calves had increased numbers of CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ blood mononuclear cells (P < 0.05).


EP has a protective effect in calves infected with E bovis. This may relate to changes in immune function induced by EP.

Clinical Relevance

Treatment of calves with EP could offer some protection against the often severe wasting and debilitation associated with E bovis infection. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:891–896)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research