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  • Author or Editor: Colette C. Wagner-Mann x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether lipid particle coalescence develops in veterinary parenteral nutrition (PN) admixture preparations that are kept at room temperature (23°C) for > 48 hours and whether that coalescence is prevented by admixture filtration, refrigeration, or agitation.

Sample Population—15 bags of veterinary PN solutions.

Procedures—Bags of a PN admixture preparation containing a lipid emulsion were suspended and maintained under different experimental conditions (3 bags/group) for 96 hours while admixtures were dispensed to simulate IV fluid administration (rate, 16 mL/h). Bags were kept static at 4°C (refrigeration); kept at 23°C (room temperature) and continuously agitated; kept at room temperature and agitated for 5 minutes every 4 hours; kept static at room temperature and filtered during delivery; or kept static at room temperature (control conditions). Admixture samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and examined via transmission electron microscopy to determine lipid particle diameters. At 96 hours, 2 samples were collected at a location distal to the filter from each bag in that group for bacterial culture.

Results—Distribution of lipid particle size in the control preparations and experimentally treated preparations did not differ significantly. A visible oil layer developed in continuously agitated preparations by 72 hours. Bacterial cultures of filtered samples yielded no growth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data indicated that the veterinary PN admixtures kept static at 23°C are suitable for use for at least 48 hours. Manipulations of PN admixtures appear unnecessary to prolong lipid particle stability, and continuous agitation may hasten lipid breakdown.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the reliability and accuracy of a predictive rectal thermometer, an infrared auricular thermometer designed for veterinary use, and a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip for measurement of core body temperature over various temperature conditions in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—8 purpose-bred dogs.

Procedures—A minimum of 7 days prior to study commencement, a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip was implanted in 1 of 3 locations (interscapular, lateral aspect of shoulder, or sacral region) in each dog. For comparison with temperatures measured via rectal thermometer, infrared auricular thermometer, and microchip, core body temperature was measured via a thermistor-tipped pulmonary artery (TTPA) catheter. Hypothermia was induced during anesthesia at the time of TTPA catheter placement; on 3 occasions after placement of the catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Near-simultaneous duplicate temperature measurements were recorded from the TTPA catheter, the rectal thermometer, auricular thermometer, and subcutaneous microchips during hypothermia, euthermia, and hyperthermia. Reliability (variability) of temperature measurement for each device and agreement between each device measurement and core body temperature were assessed.

Results—Variability between duplicate near-simultaneous temperature measurements was greatest for the auricular thermometer and least for the TTPA catheter. Measurements obtained by use of the rectal thermometer were in closest agreement with core body temperature; for all other devices, temperature readings typically underestimated core body temperature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the 3 methods of temperature measurement, rectal thermometry provided the most accurate estimation of core body temperature in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare measurements of body temperature obtained with auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 client-owned dogs: 50 with and 50 without clinical evidence of otitis externa.

Procedure—Dogs were evaluated for the presence of otitis externa on the basis of clinical signs, otoscopic examination, and cytologic evaluation of ear exudate. Auricular and rectal temperatures were obtained simultaneously in all dogs prior to and following ear examination.

Results—There was a high correlation between auricular and rectal temperatures in dogs with otitis externa both prior to and after ear manipulation. Significant differences were not detected in temperature measurements among dogs with different degrees of otitis externa.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Auricular temperature readings obtained by use of an auricular thermometer in dogs with otitis externa are accurate measurements of body temperature, compared with rectal temperature measurements. Temperature measurements are reliable before and after examination of the ear canal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:378–380)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the in vitro axial extraction forces necessary to remove pins and to evaluate mechanical trauma resulting from pin insertion, using various types of pins and insertion techniques.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Subjects

Femurs of cadavers of dogs.

Procedure

Pins were inserted as follows: 1 non-threaded pin without drilling of a pilot hole, 1 enhanced threaded pin with drilling of a pilot hole, and 1 enhanced threaded pin without drilling of a pilot hole. After pin insertion, mechanical damage and proper pin insertion was determined by means of radiography. Axial extraction forces were determined for all pins, using a universal testing machine. Mechanical damage was evaluated in 12 additional femurs. After pin insertion, all pins were removed from the bone by use of a low-speed power drill. Samples were sectioned, processed, and evaluated by use of dissecting and scanning electron microscopy.

Results

Using radiography, a significant difference was detected in the number of periosteal trans-cortex fractures between the enhanced threaded and non-threaded pins. Axial extraction force was not significantly different between the enhanced threaded pins, regardless of insertion technique; however, the axial extraction force was significantly greater for enhanced threaded pins, compared with that for nonthreaded pins. Microfractures only were detected on the periosteum of the trans-cortex of enhanced threaded pins by use of scanning electron microscopy.

Clinical Implications

We cannot recommend a particular insertion technique to decrease mechanical trauma to the bone and to increase axial extraction force needed for removal of enhanced threaded pins from the femur of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:883–887)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eight dogs were determined to be orthopedically normal on the basis of prelavage physical examination, stifle radiography, synovial fluid analysis, and force plate analysis (peak vertical force normalized for body weight, and time on the force plate). Each dog had 1 stifle randomly assigned to be lavaged with 100 ml of a commercially available 0.05% (w/v) chlorhexidine diacetate solution, and the contralateral stifle was lavaged with lactated Ringer’s solution.

Difference was not detected between the chlorhexidine diacetate and lactated Ringer’s solution-treated joints, with regard to results of synovial fluid analysis and clinical lameness evaluations on days 4 and 8 after lavage. Chlorhexidine diacetate caused a more intense synovitis than did lactated Ringer’s solution, as determined by histologic evaluation of synovial membrane specimens after necropsy on day 8; however, a difference in the intensity of toluidine blue staining of articular cartilage was not found between treatments. Chlorhexidine diacetate, as a 0.05% (w/v) solution, cannot be recommended as a joint lavage fluid until the duration of inflammatory changes in the synovial membrane are determined or until the chemical constituents of chlorhexidine diacetate causing the synovitis can be identified and removed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—67 diabetic cats.

Procedure—34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of clinical response, change in body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration, and mean blood glucose concentration during the 9-hour period after administration. Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed to attain control of glycemia.

Results—For all cats, a significant increase in mean dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose concentration, and mean serum fructosamine concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration and mean serum fructosamine concentration were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement or resolution of clinical signs by day 45.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes and may be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to treatment with other types of insulin. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:38–42)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of glucosamine and acetylsalicylate on canine chondrocytes in 3-dimensional culture.

Sample Population

Chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage of 2 adult female dogs recently euthanatized for reasons unrelated to orthopedic abnormalities.

Procedure

Chondrocytes were cultured in a 3-dimensional agarose-based medium alone (control), with glucosamine (100 μg/ml; GL), or with acetylsalicylate (18 µg/ml; AS). Supernatant and agarose plugs from 4 wells/group/d were collected on days 3, 6, and 12 of culture. Agarose plugs were evaluated for percentage of viable cells, percentage of cells producing pericellular or territorial matrix, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration, and type-II collagen production. Prostaglandin E2 concentration in supernatants was determined.

Results

Chondrocytes in all groups had characteristics indicative of viability and differentiation; however, on day 12, a lower percentage of viable cells was detected in the AS group, compared with the other 2 groups. On day 6, GAG concentration in the AS group was significantly greater than concentrations in the other 2 groups. On day 12, GAG concentrations in the GL and AS groups were significantly less than in the control group. Within the GL and AS groups, cell viability was significantly less on day 12, compared with day 3. Significant differences in PGE2 concentration among or within groups and evidence of type II collagen production were not detected.

Conclusions

3-dimensional culture of canine chondrocytes allows for production of hyaline cartilage matrix constituents and growth of cells with morphologic characteristics similar to those of articular cartilage. Acetylsalicylate and glucosamine, at the single concentration evaluated, had detrimental effects on chondrocyte viability, GAG production, or both. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1546–1551)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the histologic pattern and biomechanical properties of adhesions caused by chromic catgut and polypropylene sutures, using an enteropexy model.

Design

Enteropexies were created in dogs, using chromic catgut and polypropylene suture. The adhesions associated with the enteropexies were examined histologically and mechanically.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs weighing 16 to 20 kg.

Procedure

72 enteropexies were created between the jejunum and abdominal wall. 36 sites were sutured with chromic catgut, and 36 were sutured with polypropylene. 3 dogs were euthanatized after 1 week. The remaining dogs were euthanatized after 1 month. Samples of the enteropexy sites were obtained for histologic examination. The remaining sites were mechanically distracted until failure of the enteropexy site or adjacent tissue occurred.

Results

Histologic examination of the enteropexy sites did not reveal substantial differences in the degree of inflammation between the 2 suture types at 1 week or 1 month. The degree of inflammation decreased and the maturity of fibrous tissue formed at the enteropexy sites increased for all specimens over time. No statistically significant difference in breaking strength was observed between suture types at 1 week or 1 month.

Conclusion

In dogs, the formation and strength of intentionally created abdominal adhesions are not increased by use of chromic catgut.

Clinical Relevance

Selection of chromic catgut suture for use in surgical procedures where adhesions are desired is unwarranted. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:943–947)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Transcutaneous oxygen (PO2-TC) monitoring is commonly used in human medicine for evaluating skin viability. The application of transcutaneous monitoring for evaluating skin viability in dogs was investigated.

The changes in PO2-TC values were measured from 16 avascular skin flaps created along the lateral hemithoraces of 4 dogs. Transcutaneous oxygen values were serially recorded from the vascular base and avascular apex of each flap for 12 hours after surgery. A single transcutaneous measurement was obtained from each flap base and apex 24 hours after surgery. Serial arterial blood gas analyses were obtained to compare central oxygen values with PO2-TC values. Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were harvested from the base and apex of each flap 24 hours after surgery. The flaps were observed for 4 days and then excised for histologic examination. A subjective grading scale was used to assess histologic changes.

Throughout the 12-hour period and at 24 hours, a statistically significant difference was found between the PO2-TC values for apices and bases of the flaps. The mean PO2-TC for all bases was 90.9 mm of Hg ± 3.3 SEM, and the mean PO2-TC for all apices was 21.2 mm of Hg ± 1.8 SEM. The mean regional perfusion index (apex PO2-TC/base PO2-TC) was 0.23 ± 0.02. The subjective numbers assigned to the biopsy specimens were statistically evaluated by using a paired Student's t test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant difference was found between the numbers for the collective bases and apices with both tests. A statistically significant difference was found between the numbers for the apex biopsy specimens taken 24 hours after creation of the skin flap and those taken when the flap was excised, whereas no difference was found between the numbers for the base biopsy specimens. On the basis of our findings, PO2-tc monitoring is a useful technique for assessing skin viability in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Transcutaneous oxygen monitoring is commonly used in human beings to assess skin viability. Little attention has been directed toward the use of transcutenaous carbon dioxide (PCO2-TC ) monitoring for the same purpose. The application of PCO2-TC monitoring for evaluating skin viability in dogs was investigated.

The changes in PCO2-TC and local power reference (LPR) values were measured from 16 skin flaps created along the lateral hemithoraces of 4 dogs. Transcutaneous PPCO2 and LPR values were serially recorded from the base and apex of each flap for 12 hours. A single measurement was obtained from each flap base and apex 24 hours after surgery. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained to compare central PCO2 values with peripheral skin PCO2 values. The flaps were observed for 4 days and then harvested for histologic examination. Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were obtained 24 hours after surgery and when the flaps were harvested to evaluate the viability of the apex and base of the flaps. A subjective grade was assigned to all skin biopsy specimens during histologic examination.

For all measurements, a significant difference was found between the PCO2-TC values for apices and bases of the flaps. The mean PCO2-TC for all bases was 52.66 mm of Hg ± 2.24 (SEM), and the mean PCO2-TC for all apices was 106.4 mm of Hg ± 2.44. The regional carbon dioxide index (apex PCO2-TC /base PCO2-TC ) was 2.02.

A significant difference was not found between the LPR values for bases and apices. The mean lpr for all bases was 253.23 mW ± 4.06, and the mean LPR for all apices was 243.53 mW ± 4.49.

A signficant difference was found between the histologic grades assigned to the collective bases and apices 4 days after creation of the flaps. A difference was not found between the collective bases and apices 24 hours after flap creation. On the basis of our findings, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring is a useful method of evaluating skin viability in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research