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OBJECTIVE To characterize adverse reactions to oral administration of a combination of praziquantel and pyrantel embonate or pyrantel pamoate, with or without oxantel embonate, in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

DESIGN Retrospective case series and case-control study.

ANIMALS 16 captive cheetahs with signs of adverse reaction to oral administration of praziquantel and pyrantel, with or without oxantel embonate (affected group), and 27 cheetahs without such reactions (unaffected group), all from 3 independent facilities.

PROCEDURES Medical records and postmortem findings for affected cheetahs were reviewed and compared with those of unaffected animals. Anthelmintic doses administered, age, and sex of cheetahs were compared between groups.

RESULTS 3 reactions in affected cheetahs were fatal, whereas the remainder ranged from mild to severe. Postmortem examination failed to reveal any disease processes or conditions to explain the deaths. No differences in anthelmintic dose were identified between affected and unaffected cheetahs for all facilities combined, and no correlation existed between dose and reaction severity. No association with sex was detected, but affected cheetahs were significantly younger than unaffected cheetahs. This difference was not significant after controlling for facility.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cheetahs were concluded to have had an adverse reaction to the praziquantel-pyrantel combination because of temporal proximity of onset of clinical signs to dose administration, similarity of signs to those reported for toxicosis in other species for these drugs, and a lack of other disease process or environmental explanatory factors. A highly cautious approach to the use of this drug combination is recommended for cheetahs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine whether distraction index (DI), a measure of passive hip joint laxity, at 2 months of age was predictive of DI at 4 or 12 months of age in German Shepherd Dogs.


Prospective cohort study.


45 German Shepherd Dogs.


DI was measured at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. At the same times, a standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection of the pelvis with the hip joints extended was obtained and examined for evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD). To facilitate radiographic positioning, dogs were sedated or anesthetized.


DI at 2 months of age was not significantly correlated with DI at 4 or 12 months of age. However, DI at 4 months of age was correlated with DI at 12 months of age. The proportion of dogs with DI ≥ 0.3 at 12 months of age that had radiographic evidence of DJD by 12 months of age (13/22; 59%) was significantly greater than the proportion of dogs with DI < 0.3 at 12 months of age that had radiographic evidence of DJD by 12 months of age (1/9; 11 %).

Clinical Implications

For German Shepherd Dogs, DI at 2 months of age was not sufficiently reliable to predict DI at 4 and 12 months of age; however, DI at 4 and 12 months of age were comparable. We recommend that, for German Shepherd Dogs, DI not be measured before 4 months of age and that particularly for breeding dogs, DI be remeasured after maturity to confirm DI obtained at earlier ages. Studies including other breeds of dogs should be done to determine the youngest reliable age to initiate hip joint screening. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1560–1563)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations and degree of oxidation of ascorbic acid in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in the presence and absence of neutrophilic airway inflammation.

Animals—6 RAO-affected horses and 8 healthy control horses.

Procedure—Nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations were determined in RBC, plasma, and ELF samples of control horses and RAO-affected horses in the presence and absence of airway inflammation.

Results—ELF ascorbic acid concentration was decreased in RAO-affected horses with airway inflammation (median, 0.06 mmol/L; 25th and 75th percentiles, 0.0 and 0.4 mmol/L), compared with RAOaffected horses without airway inflammation (1.0 mmol/L; 0.7 and 1.5 mmol/L) and control horses (2.2 mmol/L; 1.4 and 2.2 mmol/L). Epithelial lining fluid ascorbic acid remained significantly lower in RAOaffected horses without airway inflammation than in control horses. Moreover, the ELF ascorbic acid redox ratio (ie, ratio of the concentrations of dehydroascorbate to total ascorbic acid) was higher in RAO-affected horses with airway inflammation (median, 0.85; 25th and 75th percentiles, 0.25 and 1.00), compared with RAOaffected horses without airway inflammation (0.04; 0.02 and 0.22). The number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was inversely related to the ELF ascorbic acid concentration ( r = –0.81) and positively correlated with the ascorbic acid redox ratio ( r= 0.65).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophilic inflammation in horses affected by RAO is associated with a reduction in the ELF ascorbic acid pool. Nutritional supplementation with ascorbic acid derivatives in horses affected by RAO is an area for further investigation. ( Am J Vet Res2004;65:80–87)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate and compare postoperative analgesic effects of grapiprant and carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.


42 sexually intact female healthy dogs (< 35 kg and 0.5 to 7 years old) were enrolled.


In a masked, randomized, noninferiority clinical trial, dogs received either 2 mg/kg of grapiprant or 4.4 mg/kg of carprofen orally 2 hours prior to ovariohysterectomy. Postoperative pain was assessed using the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale–Short Form (GCPS-SF) at extubation and 2, 4, 6, 8, 18, and 24 hours postextubation and compared to baseline. After each pain scoring, mechanical nociceptive testing with von Frey monofilaments (vF) was performed to assess hyperalgesia. Hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg, IM) was administered to any dog with a GCPS-SF of ≥ 5/24. The noninferiority limit (NI) for the GCPS-SF was Δ = 3. The NI for vF was Δ = –0.2. Following noninferiority, a mixed-effect ANOVA and post hoc comparisons were made with the Tukey correction method (P < .05).


3 dogs required rescue analgesia and were excluded from statistical analysis. Of the remaining 39 dogs, the upper CI for GCPS-SF was below the NI of 3 and the lower CI for vF was greater than the NI of –0.2, indicating noninferiority of grapiprant as compared to carprofen. There was no difference between treatment (P = .89) nor treatment by time (P = .62) for GCPS-SF. There was no difference between groups at any time point or over time when vF were used.


Our study results support the use of grapiprant as an analgesic alternative to carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical status and renal and hematopoietic function after kidney donation and identify risks associated with kidney donation in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—14 dogs that underwent unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation.

Procedures—Records were reviewed retrospectively to collect data regarding prenephrectomy clinicopathologic variables. Dogs were reexamined prospectively at various times after nephrectomy, and pre- and postnephrectomy CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio were compared. Six dogs had postnephrectomy renal volume determined ultrasonographically, and 4 of those dogs also underwent scintigraphic determination of glomerular filtration rate and renal biopsy.

Results—All dogs were clinically normal at the time of reevaluation. There were no significant differences between prenephrectomy and postnephrectomy values for BUN concentration or urine specific gravity. Mean postnephrectomy serum creatinine concentration was significantly greater than prenephrectomy concentration. Mean serum phosphorus concentration was significantly decreased after nephrectomy, and mean Hct, corpuscular volume, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased after nephrectomy. Postnephrectomy renal volume was greatest in dogs < 12 months old at the time of surgery. Mean postnephrectomy glomerular filtration rate was 2.82 ± 1.12 mL/kg/ min (1.28 ± 0.51 mL/lb/min). Renal biopsy specimens obtained during and after nephrectomy were histologically normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Renal and hematopoietic variables were within reference ranges in dogs examined up to 2.5 years after unilateral nephrectomy. Compensatory renal hypertrophy was greatest in dogs < 1 year of age at donation. Donor age, along with histocompatability, may be an important factor in selecting dogs for kidney donation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association