Objective—To compare the mechanical behaviors of a semicontoured, locking compression plate–rod (LCP-rod) construct and an anatomically contoured, limited-contact dynamic compression plate–rod (LC–DCP-rod) construct applied to experimentally induced gap fractures in canine femora.
Sample Population—16 femora from 8 cadaveric dogs.
Procedures—8 limbs from 8 dogs were assigned to the LCP-rod construct group or the LC–DCP-rod construct group. In each femur, a 39-mm mid-diaphyseal ostectomy was performed at the same plate location and the assigned construct was applied. Construct stiffness and ostectomy gap subsidence were determined before and after cyclic axial loading (6,000 cycles at 20%, 40%, and 60% of live body weight [total, 18,000 cycles]). Three constructs from each group further underwent 45,000 cycles at 60% of body weight (total, 63,000 cycles). Following cyclic loading, mode of failure during loading to failure at 5 mm/min was recorded for all constructs.
Results—After 18,000 or 63,000 cycles, construct stiffness did not differ significantly between construct groups. No implant failure occurred in any construct that underwent 63,000 cycles. In both construct groups, ostectomy gap subsidence similarly increased as axial load increased but did not change after 18,000 cycles. Mean ± SEM loads at failure in the LCP-rod (1,493.83 ± 200.12 N) and LC–DCP-rod (1,276.05 ± 156.11 N) construct groups were not significantly different. The primary failure event in all constructs occurred at the screw hole immediately distal to the ostectomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biomechanically, the semicontoured LCP-rod construct is similar to the anatomically contoured LC–DCP-rod system.
Objective—To evaluate the mechanical properties of canine carpal ligaments for use in a finite element model of the canine antebrachium.
Sample Population—26 forelimbs obtained from cadavers of 13 dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study.
Procedures—6 ligaments (medial collateral, lateral collateral, palmar ulnocarpal, palmar radiocarpal, accessorometacarpal-V, and accessorometacarpal-IV) were evaluated. Quasistatic tensile tests were performed on all specimens (n = 8 specimens/ligament) by use of a servohydraulic materials testing system in conjunction with a 6-df load cell. Each specimen was preconditioned for 10 cycles by applying 2% strain by use of a Haversine waveform. Tension was subsequently applied to each specimen at a strain rate of 0.5%/s until ligament failure.
Results—Significant differences in modulus of elasticity were detected among the ligaments. Elastic modulus did not differ significantly between the 2 accessorometacapal ligaments, between the 2 collateral ligaments, or between the 2 palmar carpal ligaments. Ligaments were classified into 3 groups (accessorometacarpal ligaments, intra-articular ligaments, and palmar carpal ligaments), and significant differences were detected among the 3 ligament groups. The accessorometacarpal ligaments had a relatively high elastic modulus, compared with results for the other ligaments. The medial and lateral collateral ligaments had the lowest elastic modulus of any of the ligaments tested.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results indicated a strong function-elastic modulus relationship for the 6 ligaments tested. The mechanical properties described here will be of use in creating a finite element model of the canine antebrachium.
Objective—To measure passive spinal movements induced during dorsoventral mobilization and evaluate effects of induced pain and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on passive vertebral mobility in standing horses.
Animals—10 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Baseline vertical displacements, applied force, stiffness, and frequency of the oscillations were measured during dorsoventral spinal mobilization at 5 thoracolumbar intervertebral sites. As a model for back pain, fixation pins were temporarily implanted into the dorsal spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae at 2 of the intervertebral sites. Vertebral variables were recorded again after pin placement and treadmill locomotion. In a random-ized crossover study, horses were allocated to control and treatment interventions, separated by a 7-day washout period.The SMT consisted of high-velocity, low-amplitude thrusts applied to the 3 non–pin-placement sites. Control horses received no treatment.
Results—The amplitudes of vertical displacement increased from cranial to caudal in the thoracolumbar portion of the vertebral column. Pin implantation caused no immediate changes at adjacent intervertebral sites, but treadmill exercise caused reductions in most variables. The SMT induced a 15% increase in displacement and a 20% increase in applied force, compared with control measurements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The passive vertical mobility of the trunk varied from cranial to caudal. At most sites, SMT increased the amplitudes of dorsoventral displacement and applied force, indicative of increased vertebral flexibility and increased tolerance to pressure in the thoracolumbar portion of the vertebral column.