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  • Author or Editor: Cheolhyun Kim x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of contrast medium injection rate on CT-derived renal perfusion estimates obtained with the maximum slope method in healthy small dogs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy sexually intact male purpose-bred Beagles.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent CT perfusion analysis 3 times in a crossover design, receiving a different contrast medium injection rate (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mL/s) each time, with a 1-week interval between imaging sessions. All CT images were obtained at the level of the left renal hilus. The time to peak aortic enhancement (TPAE) and time to initial renal venous enhancement (TIRVE) were measured from time-attenuation curves. The renal CT perfusion estimates (blood flow and blood volume) were estimated by use of the maximum slope method, which assumes no venous outflow of contrast medium during CT perfusion analysis.

RESULTS The TPAE occurred at or before the TIRVE at all injection rates. Median values of estimated blood flow and blood volume did not differ significantly among injection rates.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the assumption of no venous outflow of contrast medium during renal CT perfusion analysis with the maximum slope method was satisfied for all 3 contrast medium injection rates in the evaluated dogs. A low injection rate may be more practical than higher injection rates that require large catheters for CT perfusion analysis in small dogs such as Beagles.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To investigate the diagnostic usefulness of split-bolus CT enterography in dogs.


6 healthy Beagles.


CT enterography was performed in all dogs in a nonrandomized crossover study design involving 3 techniques: a dual-phase technique and 2 techniques involving splitting of the administered contrast agent dose (ie, split technique and split-bolus tracking technique). For the 2 techniques involving dose splitting (ie, split CT enterography), contrast agent was injected twice, with the first injection consisting of 60% of the total dose, followed by injection of the remaining 40%. Then, a single set of CT images was obtained when the arterial and venous phases matched (dual-phase and split techniques) or when enhancement of the abdominal aorta reached 100 HU (split-bolus tracking technique). Enhancement of the intestinal wall and mesenteric vessels was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively.


The total number of images required for interpretation was significantly lower for the split technique than for the dual-phase technique. The amount of time needed to complete CT enterography was significantly less for the split-bolus tracking technique than for the other 2 techniques. For all 3 techniques, adequate contrast enhancement of the mesenteric vessels and intestinal wall was achieved. The split technique provided contrast enhancement of the intestinal wall and mesenteric vessels similar to that provided with the dual-phase technique, whereas contrast enhancement of these structures was lowest for the split-bolus tracking technique.


Split-bolus CT enterography at a contrast agent allocation ratio of 60:40 enabled simultaneous evaluation of the enhanced intestine wall and mesenteric vessels and yielded image quality similar to that of dual-phase CT enterography in healthy dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate acute changes of the liver by use of shear wave elastography (SWE) and CT perfusion after radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES RFA was performed on the liver (day 0). Stiffness of the ablation lesion, transitional zone, and normal parenchyma were evaluated by use of SWE, and blood flow, blood volume, and arterial liver perfusion of those regions were evaluated by use of CT perfusion on days 0 and 4. All RFA lesions were histologically examined on day 4.

RESULTS Examination of the SWE color-coded map distinctly revealed stiffness of the liver tissue, which increased from the normal parenchyma to the transitional zone and then to the ablation zone. For CT perfusion, blood flow, blood volume, and arterial liver perfusion decreased from the transitional zone to the normal parenchyma and then to the ablation zone. Tissue stiffness and CT perfusion variables did not differ significantly between days 0 and 4. Histologic examination revealed central diffuse necrosis and peripheral hyperemia with infiltration of lymphoid cells and macrophages.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Coagulation necrosis induced a loss of blood perfusion and caused tissue hardening (stiffness) in the ablation zone. Hyperemic and inflammatory changes of the transitional zone resulted in increased blood perfusion. Acute changes in stiffness and perfusion of liver tissue after RFA could be determined by use of SWE and CT perfusion. These results can be used to predict the clinical efficacy of RFA and to support further studies, including those involving hepatic neoplasia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research