To compare the application and healing of the zip skin closure system (ZSCS) with sutured closure by use of a split-scar model of ventral midline incisions in horses in a prospective, randomized experimental study.
8 adult horses.
All horses underwent an exploratory ventral midline celiotomy with a standardized 30-cm skin incision. Each horse was randomized to have either the cranial 15 cm closed with suture and caudal 15 cm with the ZSCS or vice versa (split-scar model). Skin closure time was recorded and compared. Photography and skin biopsies were taken preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively. Cosmetic appearance was assessed by use of a proposed equine celiotomy incision score. Healing at 14 days was assessed by histopathology.
Skin closure times were faster with the ZSCS compared to sutured incisions. At 14 days postoperatively, the cosmetic appearance (equine celiotomy incision scores) for ZSCS incisions were better than sutured closure and histologic healing scores were not different between methods of closure. Subcuticular sutures were associated with deep dermal inflammation and necrosis independent of epidermal closure methods.
While limitations to the utility of the ZSCS are recognized, the potential benefits of expedient closure, good cosmetic outcome, and satisfactory healing make this method viable for closure of linear wounds or incisions in horses.
To assess onset of analgesia for 3% chloroprocaine hydrochloride and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride when used for median and ulnar nerve blocks in lame horses.
6 naturally lame horses.
A crossover experiment was conducted. Horses were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (3% chloroprocaine or 2% mepivacaine first). Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed in the lame limb with the assigned treatment. Lameness was objectively evaluated before treatment administration and at various points for 120 minutes after treatment with a wireless inertial sensor-based motion analysis system. Following a 7-day washout period, horses then received the other treatment and lameness evaluations were repeated.
Median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with 3% chloroprocaine resulted in more consistent, rapid, and profound amelioration of lameness than did blocks performed with 2% mepivacaine. Lameness decreased more between 20 and 40 minutes after injection when 3% chloroprocaine was used than when 2% mepivacaine was used. Complete resolution of lameness was detected a mean of 9 minutes after injection when median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed with 3% chloroprocaine and a mean of 28 minutes after injection when performed with 2% mepivacaine.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
3% chloroprocaine had a more rapid onset and provided better analgesia for median and ulnar nerve blocks in horses with naturally occurring lameness, compared with 2% mepivacaine. These favorable properties suggest that 3% chloroprocaine would be useful for performance of median and ulnar regional nerve blocks during complicated lameness evaluations.