Refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques, implant design and application, and perioperative management have helped substantially improve treatment of complex fractures and other skeletal defects caused by trauma, disease, developmental deformity, and tumor resection. Nonetheless, an unfavorable wound environment caused by adverse tissue conditions, suboptimal surgical technique, or large body mass relative to fixation strength can lead to delayed healing or nonunion. Under these circumstances, some means of augmenting or accelerating bone regeneration would be desirable. A number of techniques have been used in attempts to achieve this goal, including various organic and inorganic osteoconductive and osteopromotive implants, biomechanical stimuli,
Objective—To determine prevalence, clinical findings, and long-term survival rate after surgery associated with incarceration of the small intestine through the gastrosplenic ligament (ISIGL) in horses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—14 horses with ISIGL.
Procedures—Medical records of horses with ISIGL examined between January 1994 and December 2006 were reviewed. Signalment, initial physical examination findings, results of abdominal fluid analysis, and clinical laboratory values were recorded, along with surgical findings, including segment of incarcerated intestine and surgical procedures performed. Long-term survival data were obtained through client interviews.
Results—Clinical findings included small intestinal distention identified via rectal palpation (10/14 horses) or transabdominal ultrasonography (8/11), nasogastric reflux (4/14), and abnormal abdominal fluid (9/9). All horses required intestinal resection and anastomosis. Postoperative complications included adynamic ileus (5/14 horses), incisional infection (4/14), diarrhea (3/14), and laminitis (1/14). No breed or age predilection was detected, although geldings were at increased risk for ISIGL. Long-term survival rate was 79% (11/14 horses).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ISIGL was an uncommon cause of colicin this hospital population. With appropriate surgical intervention and postoperative management, the long-term prognosis for surgically treated horses was fair to good.
To investigate the effects of novel legwear designed to limit metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) extension and redirect loading forces from the flexor apparatus through analyses of 2-D kinematic and kinetic data.
6 adult horses without musculoskeletal disease.
Horses were subjected to 4 treatments: control (no legwear), inactive legwear (unlimited legwear extension), and active legwear with mild (30°) and moderate (20°) legwear extension limitation. Two-dimensional kinematic data were collected for the right forelimb (FL) during walk and trot and from leading and trailing FLs during canter on a treadmill. Ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from FLs during overground walk and trot. Peak MCPJ angle and angular velocity were calculated from kinematic data, and peak force and average loading rate were calculated from vertical GRF data during the stance phase of the gait. Interactions between gait and treatment were determined via ANOVA.
Interactions between gait and treatment for peak MCPJ angle were significant. Significant reductions in MCPJ angle were noted between the control treatment and legwear with moderate extension limitation for trot and canter (leading and trailing FL) and between inactive legwear and legwear with moderate extension limitation for trot and leading FL during canter. Interactions among peak MCPJ angular velocity, peak vertical GRF, and average loading rate of the vertical GRF showed nonsignificance.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Significant reductions in MCPJ extension without significant alterations to peak vertical GRF suggested the legwear's ability to redistribute internal forces. Findings suggested that the legwear may be beneficial for horses rehabilitating from flexor apparatus injuries.
To evaluate the ability of novel legwear designed to limit extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) to redirect loading forces from the flexor apparatus during walk, trot, and canter on a treadmill and during unrestrained and restrained activity in a stall.
6 adult horses without musculoskeletal disease.
Legwear-derived force data were recorded under 4 conditions: inactive state (unlimited legwear extension) and 3 active (restrictive) states (mild, 30° extension; moderate, 20° extension; or maximum, 10° extension). Associations between peak legwear loads and torques among legwear states and treadmill gaits and stall activities were assessed. The hair coat and skin of the forelimbs were examined for any legwear-induced adverse effects after testing.
During the treadmill exercises, moderate restriction of legwear extension resulted in significantly higher peak load and torque than mild restriction, and faster speeds (canter vs walk or trot and trot vs walk) yielded significantly higher peak load and torque. During in-stall activity, maximum restriction of legwear extension yielded significantly higher peak load and torque than moderate restriction. Unrestrained in-stall activity resulted in significantly higher peak load and torque than restrained activity. The legwear caused minimal adverse effects on the hair coat and skin of the forelimbs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that the legwear variably reduced peak loads on the flexor apparatus. Extension of the MCPJ may be incrementally adjusted through the legwear such that return to activity may be controlled, and controlled return to activity is crucial for rehabilitating flexor apparatus injuries.
Objective—To evaluate the use of technetium Tc 99m–labeled EDTA-biotin monomer (99mTc-EB1) as a scintigraphic imaging agent for soft tissue inflammatory lesions in horses.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—First (phase 1), the agent's safety and blood-tissue clearance and an appropriate imaging protocol were determined in 6 horses. Each horse was injected with 99mTc-EB1 (1.1 GBq, IV, once); images were acquired at intervals during the following 24-hour period. Subsequently (phase 2), inflammation was induced via injection of 200 mg (10 mL) of mepivacaine (0.4 mg/kg) into the right neck musculature and perineurally in the proximal palmar metacarpal region of the right forelimb of 2 horses. Six hours after mepivacaine injection, 99mTc-EB1 (2.2 GBq, IV, once) was administered; 8 hours after injection, comparative soft tissue images were acquired after administration of technetium 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP; 7.4 GBq, IV, once).
Results—After injections of 99mTc-EB1, physical examinations, CBCs, and serum biochemical analyses revealed no abnormalities in any horse. Blood clearance of 99mTc-EB1 was rapid (A phase, 2.2 minutes; β phase, 58 minutes). Soft tissue uptake of 99mTc-EB1 was immediate and persisted for as long as 4 hours after injection. At 6 hours after IM and perineural mepivacaine injections, mepivacaine-induced inflammation was detectable by use of 99mTc-EB1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that 99mTc-EB1 is safe for use in horses and can identify soft tissue inflammation without concurrent uptake in bone. Compared with 99mTc-HDP administration, use of 99mTc-EB1 extended the duration of soft tissue scintigraphic image acquisition.
Objective—To correlate substance P content of synovial
fluid with prostaglandin E2 content, radiographic
evidence of joint abnormality, and anatomic location
of the joint for normal and osteoarthritic joints of
Sample Population—Synovial fluid from 46 normal
joints in 21 horses and 16 osteoarthritic joints in 10
Procedure—Normal and osteoarthritic joints were
identified by clinical and radiographic examination, by
response to nerve blocks, during scintigraphy or
surgery, or by clinicopathologic evaluation. Substance
P and prostaglandin E2 contents of synovial fluid were
determined by radioimmunoassay. Radiographs of
joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting severity
of lesions. Joints were assigned a numeric score
reflecting anatomic location.
Results—Median concentrations of substance P
and prostaglandin E2 were significantly increased
in osteoarthritic joints, compared with normal
joints. A significant correlation was found between
concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin
E2 in synovial fluid, but a correlation was not
detected between substance P concentration in
synovial fluid and anatomic location of the joint or
between radiographic scores of osteoarthritic
joints and concentrations of substance P or
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A correlation
existed between concentrations of substance
P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid obtained
from normal and osteoarthritic joints. However,
content of substance P in synovial fluid cannot be
predicted by the radiographic appearance of the
joint or its anatomic location. Substance P and
prostaglandin E2 may share an important and related
role in the etiopathogenesis of osteoarthritis,
lending credence to the importance of neurogenic
inflammation in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: