Case Description—An 8-year-old 38-kg (84-lb) castrated male German Shepherd Dog cross was evaluated because of respiratory distress secondary to pneumothorax (detected radio-graphically prior to referral).
Clinical Findings—CT of the thorax confirmed the presence of pneumothorax and revealed pulmonary blebs without evidence of infiltrative pulmonary changes. A tentative diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax was made.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory median sternotomy revealed emphysematous changes along the margins of all lung lobes, with the ventral margins of the left cranial, right cranial, and right middle lung lobes most affected. Partial lobectomies of the ventral aspects of these lobes were performed. Histologic examination of tissue samples from the lung lobes revealed diffuse smooth muscle hypertrophy of the terminal and respiratory bronchioles with moderate numbers of peribronchiolar eosinophils. Mucus plugs and mucous cell metaplasia within the airway epithelium were also evident. After surgery, clinical signs resolved and the dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Eight months after surgery, the dog developed a mild cough, and treatment with prednisolone (tapering dosage starting at 0.5 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was initiated. Dosage reduction resulted in recurrence of coughing; however, with continued prednisolone treatment at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, PO, once daily, the dog was not coughing at 10 months after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Reactive bronchopneumopathy should be included as a differential diagnosis for spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.
Objective—To identify changes in folate status of
mares and foals during lactation and growth,
Animals—20 Thoroughbred mares and foals.
Procedures—Pregnant mares, and following foaling
the same mares with their foals, were maintained on
mixed grass-legume pasture and fed either a traditional
dietary supplement rich in sugar and starch (SS) or a
dietary supplement high in fat and fiber (FF). Blood
samples were collected monthly from mares and foals
up to 6 months after foaling. Total folate concentration
in feed and forage was determined. Analyses of plasma
folate, RBC folate, plasma homocysteine (HCY),
and milk folate concentrations were performed.
Results—Mare plasma folate concentrations
declined moderately during 6 months of lactation.
Mare RBC folate concentrations initially increased
after foaling up to 3 months but declined toward the
end of the study. Plasma HCY concentration was
higher for mares fed the SS supplement, compared
with mares fed the FF supplement from foaling to 6
months of lactation. Milk folate concentrations
decreased during the first 3 months and then
increased. Foal plasma folate initially declined but
then increased. Stable concentrations of RBC folate
were observed in foals. Plasma HCY concentrations
in foals were unaffected by growth during the last 5
months. References range values for plasma folate,
RBC folate, milk folate, and plasma HCY concentrations
in healthy lactational mares and young growing
foals were determined.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Folate status
was not impaired in lactating mares and growing foals
under the conditions in our study. It appears that
folate supplementation is not necessary. (Am J Vet
Objective—To compare effects of oral supplementation
with an experimental potassium-free sodiumabundant
electrolyte mixture (EM-K) with that of oral
supplementation with commercial potassium-rich
mixtures (EM+K) on acid-base status and plasma ion
concentrations in horses during an 80-km endurance
Animals—46 healthy horses.
Procedure—Blood samples were collected before
the ride; at 21-, 37-, 56-, and 80-km inspection points;
and during recovery (ie, 30-minute period after the
ride). Consumed electrolytes were recorded. Blood
was analyzed for pH, PvCO2, and Hct, and plasma was
analyzed for Na+, K+, Cl–, Ca2+, Mg2+, lactate, albumin,
phosphate, and total protein concentrations. Plasma
concentrations of H+ and HCO3–, the strong ion difference
(SID), and osmolarity were calculated.
Results—34 (17 EM-K and 17 EM+K treated) horses
finished the ride. Potassium intake was 33 g less and
Na+ intake was 36 g greater for EM-K-treated horses,
compared with EM+K-treated horses. With increasing
distance, plasma osmolarity; H+, Na+, K+, Mg2+,
phosphate, lactate, total protein, and albumin concentrations;
and PvCO2 and Hct were increased in all
horses. Plasma HCO3–, Ca2+, and Cl– concentrations
were decreased. Plasma H+ concentration was significantly
lower in EM-K-treated horses, compared with
EM+K-treated horses. Plasma K+ concentrations at
the 80-km inspection point and during recovery were
significantly less in EM-K-treated horses, compared
with EM+K-treated horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in
plasma H+ and K+ concentrations in this endurance
ride were moderate and unlikely to contribute to signs
of muscle fatigue and hyperexcitability in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:466–473)