Objective—To evaluate effectiveness of a combination of topically applied tacrolimus, orally administered prednisone, and a novel-protein diet for treatment of perianal sinuses in dogs and to monitor clinical progress and owner management of the condition for 2 years.
Design—Noncontrolled clinical trial.
Animals—19 dogs with perianal sinuses.
Procedures—Perianal sinuses were diagnosed during physical examination, and dogs were placed on a 16-week treatment protocol consisting of topically applied 0.1% tacrolimus ointment, orally administered prednisone (tapering dose), and a novel-protein diet. Metronidazole was orally administered for the first 2 weeks. Anal sacculectomy was recommended whenever anal sacs were involved. Dogs were evaluated every month for the first 4 months and then every 6 to 12 weeks for 2 years.
Results—Perianal sinuses resolved completely in 15 of 19 dogs during the 16 weeks. In the remaining 4 dogs, the lesions markedly improved but failed to completely resolve. Three of these had anal sac involvement, and the owner of 1 dog had complied poorly with treatment instructions. During the 2 years following treatment, all dogs were maintained on intermittently applied tacrolimus ointment, 4 dogs also received prednisone every other day, and 11 dogs remained on the novel-protein diet. At the conclusion of the study, 13 of the 15 dogs that survived to that point were free of perianal disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The described protocol was effective and economical for resolving perianal sinuses. Dogs maintained on intermittent medications were unlikely to redevelop lesions. When the anal sacs were involved, anal sacculectomy appeared to improve the outcome.
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for mesenteric volvulus (MV) in military working dogs (MWDs).
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 211 MWDs (54 with and 157 without MV [case and control dogs, respectively]).
PROCEDURES Medical records (cases and controls) and necropsy reports (cases) were reviewed. Signalment, pertinent medical and surgical history, behavior and temperament characteristics, feeding schedules, and training types were recorded. Weather patterns for regions where dogs resided were researched. Data were evaluated statistically to identify potential risk factors for MV.
RESULTS Risk factors significantly associated with MV included German Shepherd Dog breed (OR, 11.5), increasing age (OR, 2.0), and history of prophylactic gastropexy (OR, 65.9), other abdominal surgery (after gastropexy and requiring a separate anesthetic episode; OR, 16.9), and gastrointestinal disease (OR, 5.4). Post hoc analysis of the subset of MWDs that underwent gastropexy suggested that postoperative complications were associated with MV in these dogs but type of gastropexy and surgeon experience level were not.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Data supported earlier findings that German Shepherd Dog breed and history of gastrointestinal disease were risk factors for MV. The MWDs with a history of prophylactic gastropexy or other abdominal surgery were more likely to acquire MV than were those without such history. These findings warrant further study. Despite the association between prophylactic gastropexy and MV, the authors remain supportive of this procedure to help prevent the more common disease of gastric dilatation-volvulus.
OBJECTIVE To characterize congenital laryngeal paralysis (CLP) in Alaskan Huskies.
DESIGN Prospective case series.
ANIMALS 25 Alaskan Huskies with CLP.
PROCEDURES Data were collected for each dog regarding signalment; history; results of physical, orthopedic, neurologic, and laryngeal examinations; esophagraphic findings; treatments; histologic findings; and outcomes.
RESULTS Severely affected dogs were profoundly dyspneic at birth or collapsed after brief exercise; less affected dogs reportedly tired easily or overheated with minimal exercise. Mean age at initial onset of clinical signs was 6.4 months. Blue eyes, white facial markings, and oral mucosal tags or tissue bands were noted in 23 (92%), 19 (76%), and 13 (52%) dogs. Neurologic examination revealed signs of mononeuropathy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve but not of polyneuropathy. Histologic examination revealed neurogenic atrophy of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle but no polyneuropathy. Eight (32%) dogs underwent unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization, resulting in substantial clinical improvement, including ability to compete in sled dog races. Without surgery, 4 (16%) dogs died of asphyxiation, 10 (40%) had spontaneous improvement of clinical signs (but insufficient improvement to race), and 3 (12%) remained affected. Results of pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of CLP inheritance, with variable penetrance.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CLP in the evaluated Alaskan Huskies involved mononeuropathy of the recurrent laryngeal nerves, without polyneuropathy. Most affected dogs had blue eyes, white facial markings, and oral mucosal tags or tissue bands. Given the apparent genetic component to CLP in this breed, we recommend that dogs with these features be prevented from breeding.
OBJECTIVE To compare duration of surgery, recurrence rate, and survival time between cats with idiopathic chylothorax treated with thoracic duct ligation (TDL) plus subphrenic pericardiectomy (SPC) and those treated with TDL, SPC, and cisterna chyli ablation (CCA).
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.
ANIMALS 22 client-owned cats surgically treated for idiopathic chylothorax from 2009 through 2014.
PROCEDURES Patient and surgery data were collected from the medical records. Recurrence of chylothorax and survival time were assessed by medical record review and client interview. Comparisons were made between cats treated with TDL plus SPC (TDL-SPC group) and those treated with TDL, SPC, and CCA (TDL-SPC-CCA group).
RESULTS 15 cats were treated with TDL plus SPC, and 7 were treated with TDL, SPC, and CCA. Median duration of surgery was significantly briefer for the TDL-SPC group (80 minutes; range, 55 to 175 minutes) than for the TDL-SPC-CCA group (125 minutes; range, 105 to 205 minutes). Five cats (2 in the TDL-SPC group and 3 in the TDL-SPC-CCA group) had persistent pleural effusion 4 weeks after surgery. Chylothorax recurred in 2 cats (1/group). Median survival time in the TDL-SPC group was 774 days (range, 3 to 2,844 days) and in the TDL-SPC-CCA group was 380 days (range, 11 to 815 days); these values did not differ significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Addition of CCA to the surgical treatment approach for cats with idiopathic chylothorax was associated with a significantly longer duration of surgery with no better outcome than achieved with TDL plus SPC alone.