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  • Author or Editor: Brittany Heggem x
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Objective—To determine an efficient method for the collection of semen samples by means of electroejaculation, characterize spermatozoa quality and quantity, and determine the effect of refrigerated storage on motility of spermatozoa obtained from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

Animals—18 adult green iguanas.

Procedures—Green iguanas were anesthetized, and semen samples were obtained by means of electroejaculation. Up to 3 series of electrostimulations were performed; the procedure was stopped after a semen sample was obtained. Various semen sample variables were evaluated.

Results—Semen samples were obtained from 16 iguanas; most (n = 10) iguanas produced a semen sample after the second series of electrostimulations. Median semen sample volume was 0.05 mL. Mean spermatozoa concentration was 2 69.0 × 106 spermatozoa/mL. Median percentage of motile spermatozoa was 78%. The only morphological abnormality of spermatozoa was bent tails (mean percentage in a semen sample, 5.7%). Spermatozoa motility decreased significantly during refrigeration (4°C); median percentage motility after 24, 48, and 72 hours of refrigeration was 60%, 33%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested electroejaculation can be performed to collect semen samples from green iguanas, characteristics of iguana semen samples are similar to those for semen samples obtained from other reptiles, and motility of iguana spermatozoa decreases during refrigeration within 48 to 72 hours.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate agreement of blood glucose concentrations measured in juvenile white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by use of 2 point-of-care (POC) blood glucose meters and 1 portable chemistry analyzer with values obtained in serum by use of a standard laboratory chemistry analyzer, and to evaluate agreement between results obtained with the 2 POC meters.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Sample—14 venous blood samples from 14 healthy white-tailed deer fawns.

Procedures—Blood glucose concentration was measured with each of 2 POC meters. The remainder of the sample was divided into 2 tubes (1 that contained lithium heparin and 1 with no anticoagulant). Glucose concentration in anticoagulated whole blood was measured with the portable analyzer. Serum was collected from the remaining sample for measurement of glucose concentrations with the laboratory analyzer. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement.

Results—Agreement between POC blood glucose meters and the laboratory analyzer was poor; mean values for bias were 2.9 mg/dL (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −70.2 to 76.0 mg/dL) and −30.8 mg/dL (95% LOA, −111.6 to 49.9 mg/dL), respectively. Agreement between the 2 POC meters was also poor (bias, 31.0 mg/dL; 95% LOA, −47.2 to 109.2 mg/dL). Agreement between the portable analyzer and the laboratory analyzer was good (bias, −1.6 mg/dL; 95% LOA, −15.3 to 12.1 mg/dL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the POC blood glucose meters used in this study are not appropriate for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in juvenile white-tailed deer.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the predominant thromboxane (TX) metabolite in urine of healthy cats, evaluate whether the method of sample collection would impact concentration of that metabolite, and propose a reference interval for that metabolite in urine of healthy cats.

ANIMALS 17 cats (11 purpose-bred domestic shorthair cats, 5 client-owned domestic shorthair cats, and 1 client-owned Persian cat).

PROCEDURES All cats were deemed healthy on the basis of results for physical examination, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Voided and cystocentesis urine samples (or both) were collected. Aliquots of urine were stored at −80°C until analysis. Concentrations of TXB2, 11-dehydroTXB2, and 2,3 dinorTXB2 were measured with commercially available ELISA kits. Urinary creatinine concentration was also measured.

RESULTS 11-dehydroTXB2 was the most abundant compound, representing (mean ± SD) 59 ± 18% of the total amount of TX detected. In all samples, the concentration of 11-dehydroTXB2 was greater than that of 2,3 dinorTXB2 (mean, 4.2 ± 2.7-fold as high). Mean concentration of 11-dehydroTXB2 for the 17 cats was 0.57 ± 0.47 ng/mg of creatinine. A reference interval (based on the 5% to 95% confidence interval) of 0.10 to 2.1 ng of 11-dehydroTXB2/mg of creatinine was proposed for healthy cats.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, 11-dehydroTXB2 was the major TX metabolite in feline urine. Measurement of this metabolite may represent a noninvasive, convenient method for monitoring in vivo platelet activation in cats at risk for thromboembolism.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research