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A 28-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with a 1 -week history of regurgitation-like movement of the neck and a 34-year-old mealy Amazon parrot (Amazona farinosa) with a 1- to 2-day history of regurgitation and crop distention were evaluated.


Full-body radiography of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot revealed a soft tissue structure in the right side of the neck, cranial to the crop. Results of cytologic examination of a fine-needle aspirate specimen of the mass were diagnostic for an epithelial sarcoma involving the esophagus. For the mealy Amazon parrot, CT revealed diffuse esophageal thickening that was most consistent with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of its location and appearance. Both parrots had secondary bacterial ingluvitis.


Given the location and extent of the neoplasm in each bird, surgical excision was not undertaken. Options of chemotherapy and radiation therapy were explored but declined by the owners owing to concerns regarding the parrots' quality of life. Both parrots were euthanized, and necropsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in both cases.


Both parrots of the present report had a palpable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma detected during physical examination. Although rare, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma should be included as a differential diagnosis for psittacines with upper gastrointestinal tract signs. Treatment to extend duration or quality of life of affected parrots hinges on antemortem diagnosis, which appears feasible in clinical practice.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess the clinical outcome of a ferret undergoing a ureteroneocystostomy for treatment of urolithiasis.


A 10-month-old spayed female ferret.


The ferret was evaluated for straining to urinate and defecate, hematochezia, and a rectal prolapse. Plain radiographs revealed large cystic and ureteral calculi. Clinicopathologic analyses indicated the ferret was anemic with an elevated creatinine concentration. Exploratory laparotomy defined bilateral ureteral calculi that were unable to be successfully moved into the bladder. A cystotomy was performed to remove a large cystic calculus. Serial abdominal ultrasonographic examinations showed progressive hydronephrosis of the left kidney and persistent pyelectasia of the right kidney secondary to bilateral ureteral calculi. This confirmed a left ureteral obstruction secondary to the distal calculus while the right ureter remained patent.


A ureteroneocystostomy was performed to allow for left renal decompression. The ferret recovered well despite worsening hydronephrosis of the left kidney in the perioperative period. The ferret was discharged from the hospital 10 days after initial evaluation. At 3-week follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation of the left kidney and ureter.


A ureteroneocystostomy successfully allowed renal decompression and ureteral patency in a ferret with urolithiasis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this procedure has been reported in a ferret for treatment of a ureteral calculus obstruction and may result in good long-term outcome.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association