To determine factors associated with change in rectal temperature (RT) of dogs undergoing anesthesia.
In a prospective observational study, the RT of dogs undergoing anesthesia at 5 veterinary hospitals was recorded at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of recovery from anesthesia (ie, at the time of extubation). Demographic data, body condition score, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, types of procedure performed and medications administered, duration of anesthesia, and use of heat support were also recorded. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine factors that were significantly associated with a decrease or an increase (or no change) in RT. Odds ratios were calculated for factors significantly associated with a decrease in RT.
Among the 507 dogs undergoing anesthesia, RT decreased in 89% (median decrease, −1.2°C [-2.2°F]; range, −0.1°C to −5.7°C [–0.2°F to −10.3°F]), increased in 9% (median increase, 0.65°C [1.2°F]; range, 0.1°C to 2.1°C [3.8°F]), and did not change in 2%. Factors that significantly predicted and increased the odds of a decrease in RT included lower weight, ASA classification > 2, surgery for orthopedic or neurologic disease, MRI procedures, use of an α2-adrenergic or μ-opioid receptor agonist, longer duration of anesthesia, and higher heat loss rate. Lack of μ-opioid receptor agonist use, shorter duration of anesthesia, and lower heat loss rate were significantly associated with an increase in RT.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Multiple factors that were associated with a decrease in RT in dogs undergoing anesthesia were identified. Knowledge of these factors may help identify dogs at greater risk of developing inadvertent perianesthetic hypothermia.
To compare perceptions related to veterinary anesthesiologist involvement with anesthesia and pain management, benefits of a preanesthetic consultation (PAC) with an anesthesiologist, and quality of patient care between clients who did and did not participate in a PAC prior to their dogs’ elective orthopedic surgery.
80 dog owners.
Owners of dogs undergoing elective stifle joint surgery participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to PAC and control groups (n = 40 participants/group). The PAC group participated in a PAC with an anesthesiologist and completed a written survey (12 items with Likert-type response options). The control group completed a similar survey (identical except for 2 statements related to the PAC experience) without participating in a PAC. Results were compared between groups by statistical methods.
The proportion of clients in the PAC group who strongly agreed with the statements that a PAC was beneficial, their questions about the pet's anesthesia and pain management plan were answered, they knew who would perform anesthesia and what safeguards were in place, veterinary specialty hospitals should have an anesthesiologist on staff, they were willing to pay more to have an anesthesiologist supervise the anesthesia and pain management, and a PAC with an anesthesiologist should be standard of care in veterinary medicine was greater than that for control group clients. Responses to quality-of-care items did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Participating in a PAC was associated with more positive perceptions of anesthesiologists and knowledge about the anesthesia plan. Further research with a validated survey instrument is needed to confirm these findings.