To assess reliability of the Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) for measurement of tear production in cats in various environments, investigate whether sympathetic stimulation impacts measurements, and determine whether meaningful conclusions regarding lacrimation in cats can be drawn from STT-1 measurements obtained with STT strip placement for < 1 minute.
176 cats examined in a private practice (n = 100), a feral cat clinic (56), or a veterinary teaching hospital (20).
The STT-1 was performed in both eyes of each cat. Measurements were recorded at 10− or 30-second intervals for 1 minute. Cats at the teaching hospital were tested once in a quiet examination room (unstimulated conditions) and once in the same room with loud prerecorded noises (stimulated conditions), with a 30-minute interval between tests and evaluation of cats’ heart rates before and after STT-1. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical tools and a nonlinear mixed-effect model.
30− and 60-second STT-1 measurements were significantly correlated (r = 0.94). The STT-1 measurements did not differ under nonstimulated versus stimulated conditions, despite significant changes in heart rates that indicated sympathetic stimulation. A hyperbolic model of STT-1 kinetics was validated, allowing for extrapolation of measurements obtained in < 60 seconds and generation of reference values (95% predictive intervals) for various test durations. Median (95% predictive interval) 30− and 60-second STT-1 measurements were 9.1 mm (4.8 to 15.6 mm) and 14.3 mm (8.2 to 22.3 mm), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The STT-1 was a reliable diagnostic test in all settings; results were not affected by sympathetic stimulation, and a shorter duration of testing could be considered in selected cases.
To evaluate the time-course of ampicillin-sulbactam and percentage of time that its concentration is above a given MIC (T% > MIC) in dogs with septic peritonitis when delivered as either a continuous infusion (CI) or intermittent infusion (II).
11 dogs with septic peritonitis.
Dogs were randomized to receive ampicillin-sulbactam as either CI or II. Continuous infusions were delivered as a 50 mg/kg bolus IV followed by a rate of 0.1 mg/kg/min. Intermittent infusions were administered as 50 mg/kg IV q8h. Serum ampicillin-sulbactam concentrations were measured at hours 0, 1, 6, and every 12 hours after until patients were transitioned to an oral antimicrobial equivalent. All other care was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Statistical analysis was used to determine each patient's percentage of time T% > MIC for 4 MIC breakpoints (0.25, 1.25, 8, and 16 µg/mL).
No dogs experienced adverse events related to ampicillin-sulbactam administration. Both CI and II maintained a T% > MIC of 100% of MIC 0.25 µg/mL and MIC 1.25 µg/mL. The CI group maintained a higher T% > MIC for MIC 8 µg/mL and MIC 16 µg/mL; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = .15 and P = .12, respectively).
This study could not demonstrate that ampicillin-sulbactam CI maintains a greater T% > MIC in dogs with septic peritonitis than II; however, marginal differences were noted at higher antimicrobial breakpoints. While these data support the use of antimicrobial CI in septic and critically ill patients, additional prospective trials are needed to fully define the optimal doses and the associated clinical responses.