OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidemia status and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides of dogs when initially examined for hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine whether these variables were predictive of survival to hospital discharge.
PROCEDURES Medical records of sick dogs hospitalized in the ICU at a veterinary teaching hospital between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2015, and of healthy dogs evaluated at the teaching hospital during the same time frame were reviewed. Data collection included signalment, results of initial physical and clinicopathologic examinations, treatments, diagnosis, and survival to hospital discharge. Lipidemia status and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were compared between healthy and sick dogs and between sick dogs that did and did not survive to hospital discharge. Regression analysis was performed to determine whether these variables were predictive of survival to hospital discharge in dogs.
RESULTS Factors associated with increased odds of sick dogs not surviving to hospital discharge were hypocholesterolemia (OR, 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.34), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.00 to 5.13), and concurrent hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 55.7; 95% CI, 3.2 to 959.6) at the time of initial evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, alone or in combination, at initial examination were negative prognostic indicators for survival of dogs hospitalized in the ICU and that these conditions were easily identified with routine serum clinicopathologic analyses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:699–709)
To compare the use of curvilinear-array (microconvex) and phased-array transducers for ultrasonographic examination of the lungs in dogs.
13 client-owned dogs with left-sided congestive heart failure.
In a prospective methods comparison study, 24 ultrasonographic examinations of the lungs (4 sites/hemithorax) were performed with both curvilinear-array and phased-array transducers at 3 clinical time points. Two observers independently assessed the number of B lines (scored per site and in total), number of sites strongly positive for B lines (ie, those with > 3 B lines/site), and image quality (scored on a 5-point scale). Analyses included assessment of interobserver agreement with κ analysis, comparison of quality scores between transducers with mixed-effects modeling, and investigation of agreement and bias for B-line data and quality scores between transducers with Passing-Bablok regression.
Interobserver agreement for total B-line scores and number of strong-positive sites was excellent (κ > 0.80) for both transducers. There was no evidence of analytic bias for the number of B lines or strong-positive sites between transducers. Interobserver agreement for image quality scores was moderate (κ, 0.498 and 0.517 for the curvilinear-array and phased-array transducers, respectively). Both observers consistently assigned higher-quality scores to curvilinear-array images than to phased-array images.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated both curvilinear-array (microconvex) and phased-array transducers can be used by experienced sonographers to obtain diagnostic ultrasonographic images of the lungs in dogs with acute or resolving left-sided congestive heart failure and suggested the former transducer may be preferred, particularly to aid identification of anatomic landmarks for orientation.
To determine the prevalence of vulvar recession in a large population of dogs and to compare the reproductive and physical differences between dogs with and without recessed vulvas.
250 female dogs presenting to a tertiary referral institution.
Female dogs > 6 months of age presenting to a tertiary referral institution were enrolled. At enrollment, a full medical history was obtained with particular emphasis on the presence of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in the 3 months prior to presentation. All dogs underwent a full physical examination including perivulvar cytologic examination and scoring of the degree of perivulvar skin coverage on the basis of an 8-point scale. Dogs with scores of ≥ 7 were classified as having recessed vulvas. When available, urinalysis data were also included.
Recessed vulvas were identified in 36 of 250 (14%) dogs. Dogs with recessed vulvas had significantly higher body condition scores and body weights than unaffected dogs. In addition, recessed vulvas were more common in spayed than sexually intact dogs. Dogs spayed at ≤ 1 year of age were almost 3 times as likely to have vulvar recession, compared with dogs spayed at > 1 year of age. No significant difference was identified between affected and unaffected dogs with respect to the prevalence of LUT signs, urinary tract infections, or perivulvar dermatitis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although recessed vulvas were relatively common in dogs, they did not appear to be associated with an increased risk of LUT disease or perivulvar dermatitis.
To characterize lung ultrasonography (LUS) findings in dogs with a primary clinical complaint of cough.
100 client-owned coughing dogs.
A standardized LUS examination was performed for all dogs to quantify the number of B lines and identify subpleural abnormalities at 4 sites on each hemithorax. The final clinical diagnosis (reference standard) was determined by medical record review, and sensitivity and specificity of LUS for the diagnosis of selected causes of cough was determined.
Common underlying causes of cough included dynamic airway collapse (n = 37), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE; 12), and bronchitis (10). Compared with dogs with other causes of cough, dogs with bacterial pneumonia (n = 7) were more likely to have subpleural shred signs, whereas dogs with pulmonary neoplasia (4) were more likely to have subpleural nodule signs. Dogs with CPE had higher total B-line scores and higher numbers of LUS sites strongly positive for B lines (> 3 B lines/site) than other dogs. The LUS criteria of total B-line score ≥ 10 and presence of ≥ 2 sites strongly positive for B lines were each 92% sensitive and 94% specific for CPE diagnosis. Notably, 18% (16/88) of dogs with noncardiac causes of cough had been treated previously with diuretics because of prior CPE misdiagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
LUS profiles in dogs with cough differed by the underlying cause. In dogs with a clinical history of cough, this imaging modality could be diagnostically useful, particularly to help exclude the possibility of underlying CPE.
To describe the clinical findings and outcome in hypercalcemic dogs that were diagnosed with T-cell lymphoid neoplasia by bone marrow evaluation.
11 client-owned dogs, identified retrospectively through 2 diagnostic laboratories between 2014 and 2021.
Cases presented with hypercalcemia and lacked overt evidence of lymphoid neoplasia in the blood or nonmedullary tissues. T-cell lymphoid neoplasia was diagnosed once the bone marrow was investigated, using a variable combination of cytology, histology, and flow cytometry.
The median age at presentation was 5.7 years (range, 4.0 to 8.6 years). All cases were large-breed dogs, and 4 of 11 cases were Golden Retrievers. Dogs presented most commonly for polyuria and polydipsia (72%). Eight cases had neutropenia, and 10 of 11 dogs had reported thrombocytopenia. In all cases, flow cytometry identified an expansion of neoplastic small- to intermediate-sized T cells in the bone marrow that expressed low-class-II major histocompatibility complex. Neoplastic T cells in 10 of 11 cases expressed CD4. Treatments ranged from prednisone alone to multiagent chemotherapy. The median overall survival time was 260 days (range, 25 to 792 days).
T-cell lymphoid neoplasia diagnosed via bone marrow evaluation that may represent a unique bone marrow T-cell neoplastic entity should be considered in hypercalcemic dogs with isolated cytopenias that lack peripheral lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and organomegaly. Clinical outcome in these cases was variable, which may be related to nonstandardized treatments, but a subset of patients had prolonged survival.
OBJECTIVE To determine reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein concentration, pH, RBC count, and percentages of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear cells in synovial fluid samples (SFSs) obtained from the carpal and tarsal joints of healthy swine.
ANIMALS 54 healthy commercial finisher pigs that had no evidence of lameness or gross joint swelling.
PROCEDURES Each pig was anesthetized, and SFSs were collected from 1 carpal and 1 tarsal joint for fluid analysis, cytologic evaluation, bacterial culture, and PCR analyses for common swine joint pathogens. Each pig was euthanized after SFS collection, and synovial tissue samples were collected for histologic assessment. If necessary, postmortem SFSs were collected.
RESULTS Overall, 37 of 50 tarsal and 46 of 53 carpal SFSs met inclusion criteria of sufficient volume, no gross blood contamination, and negative results of bacterial culture and PCR analyses, and were from joints with histologically normal synovial tissues. For the carpal and tarsal joints, upper reference limits were as follows: total nucleated cell count, 3,281 cells/μL and 2,368 cells/μL, respectively; total protein concentration, 3.6 g/dL and 3.6 g/dL, respectively; pH, 7.2 and 7.0, respectively; RBC count, 0.8 × 106 cells/μL and 0.1 × 106 cells/μL, respectively; and percentage of neutrophils, 46.5% and 33.7%, respectively; percentage of lymphocytes, 40.6% and 56.3%, respectively; and percentage of large mononuclear cells, 92.0% and 95.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results have provided reference intervals for selected variables in SFSs obtained from the carpal and the tarsal joints of healthy swine, which should be useful in diagnostic investigations of swine lameness and arthritis.