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  • Author or Editor: Ann R. Donoghue x
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Objective—To evaluate the potential utility of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) as a long-acting biodegradable drug delivery matrix for ivermectin used in the prevention of heartworm disease in dogs.

Animals—30 adult female dogs.

Procedure—Microparticle formulations containing 25 weight percent (wt%), 35 wt%, and 50 wt% ivermectin were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion technique with solvent extraction into excess water. A fourth formulation, consisting of a mixture of 15 wt% and 50 wt% ivermectin microparticles, was blended in a 1:1 ratio to result in a 32.5 wt% ivermectin formulation. Formulations were administered once on Day 0 to groups of 6 dogs at a dose of 0.5 mg of ivermectin/ kg, SC. Half of the dogs in each treatment group and 3 untreated control dogs were infected with Dirofilaria immitis larvae 121 and 170 days after treatment. Six months after infection, dogs were euthanatized and necropsies were performed. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy were investigated.

Results—Analysis of pharmacokinetic data revealed sustained release of ivermectin during at least 287 days in 3 distinct phases: a small initial peak, followed by release of drug through diffusion, and polymer degradation. Untreated control dogs were all infected with heartworms. Heartworms were not found in any of the dogs in the ivermectin-PLGA treated groups. Adverse clinical signs were not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All formulations were 100% effective in preventing development of adult heartworms. Results indicate that PLGA microparticles are a promising drug delivery matrix for use with ivermectin for the prevention of heartworm disease for at least 6 months after treatment. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:752–757)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the safety of fenbendazole in domestic cats.

Animals—28 six- to seven-month old domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups or a control group (n = 7/group). Cats in the treatment groups were given fenbendazole at a dosage of 50, 150, or 250 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 9 days; control cats were given a placebo. A fecal examination, coagulation tests, serum biochemical analyses, CBC, and urinalyses were performed before and 5, 9, and 21 days after initiation of treatment; cats were closely monitored for adverse reactions. After the last dose of fenbendazole was given, 4 control cats and 4 cats given fenbendazole at the highest dosage were euthanatized, and necropsies were performed.

Results—None of the cats developed any adverse reactions. For cats in the control and all treated groups, laboratory test results were within reference limits, and there were no significant differences in results of laboratory tests among groups. No gross or histologic lesions were identified in the control or treated cats that were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fenbendazole administered to healthy cats at a dosage 5 times the dosage and 3 times the duration approved for use in dogs and wild felids did not cause any acute or subacute adverse reactions or pathologic changes. Results suggest that cats may be safely treated with fenbendazole. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:330–332)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research