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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare, for blood samples from dogs and horses, blood electrolyte concentrations, blood gas partial pressures, and Hct obtained using a handheld analyzer with those obtained using a standard chemistry analyzer and to compare results obtained with the handheld analyzer using warm versus cold test cartridges.

Design

Case series with analysis of split samples.

Sample Population

Blood samples from 22 dogs and 17 horses.

Procedure

Sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations, pH, Po2, Pco2, base excess, and Hct were determined by use of a handheld analyzer and test cartridges that had been allowed to warm to ambient temperature or had been recently removed from a refrigerator. Results were compared with those from a standard chemistry analyzer by use of linear regression.

Results

For canine samples, values obtained with the handheld analyzer and warm cartridges were highly correlated (r 2 ≥ 0.83) with values obtained with the standard chemistry analyzer, except for sodium concentration (r 2 = 0.6). For equine samples, values obtained with the handheld analyzer and warm cartridges were highly correlated (r 2 ≥ 0.79) with values obtained with the standard chemistry analyzer, except for Hct (r 2 = 0.38). For all samples, results obtained with cold and warm cartridges were moderately correlated (r 2 ≥ 0.69).

Clinical Implications

Results obtained with the handheld analyzer were similar to those obtained from the standard chemistry analyzer, with the exception of sodium concentration for canine samples and Hct for equine samples. Results were not substantially affected by use of cold, rather than warm, test cartridges. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:526-530)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the efficacy and safety of a low-volume, single-catheter, continuous peripheral neural blockade (CPNB) technique to locally deliver bupivacaine to alleviate signs of severe forelimb pain resulting from experimentally induced tendonitis in horses.

Design—Randomized controlled experimental trial.

Sample—14 horses and 5 forelimbs from equine cadavers.

Procedures—Horses underwent collagenase-induced superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the midmetacarpal region of 1 forelimb. To deliver analgesia, a closed-tip catheter was placed from lateral to medial, approximately 12 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone, between the suspensory ligament and accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon. Success of catheter placement and anesthetic delivery was documented ex vivo in 5 forelimbs from equine cadavers. Effective analgesia in affected forelimbs of horses from continuous (n = 7) versus intermittent (7) local anesthetic delivery (intermittent peripheral neural blockade; IPNB) was compared over a 3-day period.

Results—Horses that received CPNB in the affected forelimb were less lame than horses that received IPNB. A lower proportion of CPNB-treated horses had behavioral and physiologic signs of pain, compared with IPNB-treated horses. Neither technique completely blocked the sensation of pain or resulted in swelling in the distal portion of the forelimb, vasodilation, or an increase in lameness. After removal, Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 1 catheter tip.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For short-term treatment, CPNB was more effective than IPNB for reduction in signs of severe pain in the distal aspect of the forelimb of horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (atp) release were measured by use of the impedance method in blood samples obtained from 25 adult female Beagles before and after sedation with acepromazine (0.13 mg/kg of body weight) and atropine (0.05 mg/kg), and during general anesthesia. General anesthesia was induced by iv administration of thiamylal (average dosage, 2.1 mg/kg; range, 1.2 to 4.2 mg/kg) and was maintained with halothane in oxygen. Samples of jugular venous blood were obtained from each dog, using citrate as anticoagulant. Platelet count was done on each sample. Platelet aggregation and atp released from the aggregating platelets were measured within 2.5 hours of sample collection, using a whole-blood aggregometer. Adenosine diphosphate (adp) or collagen was used as aggregating agent. For each aggregating agent, platelet aggregation and atp release were measured over 6 minutes. After sedation with acepromazine and atropine, significant (P < 0.01) reduction was observed in platelet count (from median values of 341,000 cells/μl to 283,000 cells/μl) and in the ability of platelets to aggregate in response to adp (from 14.0 to 7.0 Ω). During the same period, maximal release of atp in response to collagen also was reduced (from 5.56 μmol to 4.57 μmol; P < 0.01); however, this difference ceased to be significant when atp release was normalized for platelet count. During general anesthesia and surgery (200 minutes after sedation), platelet count and aggregation responses to adp and collagen had returned to presedation values. None of the dogs in this study appeared to have hemostasis problems during surgery.

In conclusion, sedation with acepromazine and atropine induces measurable inhibition of adp-induced platelet aggregation that resolves during subsequent general anesthesia and surgery. Transient inhibition of platelet aggregation is not manifested by a change in gross hemostasis during surgery.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine pharmacokinetic variables of mivacurium chloride after IV administration in dogs.

Animals

5 healthy Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure

Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Dogs were ventilated mechanically to an end-tidal PCO2 value between 35 and 40 mm Hg. Heart rate, direct blood pressure, and arterial pH were recorded throughout the experiment. Core temperature, end-tidal PCO2 , and halothane concentration were kept constant throughout the experiment. Paired blood samples for determination of plasma cholinesterase activity were collected prior to administration of a bolus of mivacurium (0.05 mg/kg of body weight), which was administered IV during a 2-second period. Arterial blood samples were obtained for determination of plasma mivacurium concentration 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120, 150, and 180 minutes after administration of mivacurium. Blood was collected into tubes containing EDTA and 0.25% echothiophate. Mivacurium concentration was determined, using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results

For the trans-trans isomer, mean ± SEM volume of distribution was 0.18 ± 0.024 L/kg, median half-life was 34.9 minutes (range, 26.7 to 53.5 minutes), and clearance was 12 ± 2 ml/min/kg. For the cis-trans isomer, values were 0.31 ± 0.05 L/kg, 43.4 minutes (range, 31.5 to 69.3 minutes), and 15 ± 2 ml/min/kg, respectively. Values for the cis-cis isomer were not calculated, because it was not detectable in plasma 60 minutes after mivacurium administration in all 5 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The trans-trans and cis-trans isomers of mivacurium have a long half-life and slow clearance in healthy dogs anesthetized with halothane. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1051-1054)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

As efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned dogs and cats have increased, greater attention has been focused on spay-neuter programs throughout the United States. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of programs have been developed to increase delivery of spay-neuter services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, feral cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to ensure a consistent level of care, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. The guidelines consist of recommendations for preoperative care (eg, patient transport and housing, patient selection, client communication, record keeping, and medical considerations), anesthetic management (eg, equipment, monitoring, perioperative considerations, anesthetic protocols, and emergency preparedness), surgical care (eg, operating-area environment; surgical-pack preparation; patient preparation; surgeon preparation; surgical procedures for pediatric, juvenile, and adult patients; and identification of neutered animals), and postoperative care (eg, analgesia, recovery, and release). These guidelines are based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, microbiology, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

As community efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned cats and dogs have increased, many veterinarians have increasingly focused their clinical efforts on the provision of spay-neuter services. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of spay-neuter programs have been developed to increase delivery of services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, community cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to promote consistent, high-quality care across the broad range of these programs, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. These guidelines consist of recommendations for general patient care and clinical procedures, preoperative care, anesthetic management, surgical procedures, postoperative care, and operations management. They were based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, infection control, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs regardless of location, facility, or type of program. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians envisions that these guidelines will be used by the profession to maintain consistent veterinary medical care in all settings where spay-neuter services are provided and to promote these services as a means of reducing sheltering and euthanasia of cats and dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association