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  • Author or Editor: Amelia Goddard x
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Objective—To evaluate the role of adrenal and thyroid hormones in the prediction of death in a population of critically ill puppies with parvoviral diarrhea by measuring serial daily serum concentrations of cortisol and thyroxine.

Design—Prospective case-control study

Animals—57 critically ill puppies with parvoviral diarrhea admitted to the hospital and 17 clinically normal control puppies.

Procedures—Basal serum cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured for each dog with parvoviral diarrhea at admission (prior to treatment) and daily until death, euthanasia, or discharge.

Results—Median time between admission and death was 48 hours (ie, on day 3). Median serum cortisol concentration on day 1 (admission) in all dogs with parvoviral diarrhea (248 nmol/L) was significantly higher than in control dogs (77 nmol/L). No significant difference was found in the day 1 median serum cortisol concentration of 11 dogs that died (302 nmol/L) and 46 dogs that survived (238 nmol/L). A significantly higher median serum cortisol concentration was, however, found in nonsurvivor group dogs, compared with survivor group dogs, on days 2 and 3. Median serum thyroxine concentration on day 1 in dogs with parvoviral diarrhea was significantly lower than in control dogs (8.12 nmol/L vs 35 nmol/L, respectively). Median serum thyroxine concentration of nonsurvivor group dogs (4.4 nmol/L) was significantly lower than that of survivor group dogs (9.2 nmol/L) at admission and became even lower on days 2 and 3.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High serum cortisol and low serum thyroxine concentrations at 24 and 48 hours after admission were associated with death in dogs with parvoviral diarrhea.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



African Horse Sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa caused by African Horse Sickness Virus (AHVS). Infections in naïve horses have high morbidity and mortality rates. AHS pathogenesis is not well understood; neither the hematologic changes nor acute phase response occurring during infection has been fully evaluated. The study’s objective was to characterize the hematologic changes and acute phase response during experimental infection with AHSV.


4 horses negative for AHSV group-specific antibodies.


In this prospective, longitudinal study conducted between November 23 and December 2, 2020, horses were experimentally infected with AHSV, and blood samples were obtained before inoculation and then every 12 hours until euthanasia. Hematologic changes and changes for serum amyloid A (SAA) and iron concentration were evaluated over time using a general linear model including natural logarithm of sampling time.


All horses were humanely euthanized due to severe clinical signs typical of AHS. Median Hct increased significantly, and the median WBC count, monocyte count, eosinophil count, and myeloperoxidase index changed significantly in all horses over time. Horses developed marked thrombocytopenia (median, 48 X 103 cells/µL; range, 21 X 103 to 58 X 103 cells/µL) while markers of platelet activation also changed significantly. Median SAA increased and serum iron concentration decreased significantly over time.


Results indicated severe thrombocytopenia with platelet activation occurs during infection with AHSV. Changes in acute phase reactants SAA and iron, while significant, were unexpectedly mild and might not be useful clinical markers.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus infection.

Procedures—All puppies received supportive care. Serum CRP concentration was measured at the time of admission, approximately every 10 to 12 hours for the first 48 hours, and then every 24 hours until discharge from the hospital or death. Associations between outcome and CRP concentration at various time points or changes in CRP concentration over time were assessed via multiple logistic regression. Associations of CRP concentration with survival time and duration of hospitalization among survivors were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Use of CRP concentration to predict outcome was evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

Results—Serum CRP concentrations at admission and 12 and 24 hours later were positively associated with odds of death, and CRP concentrations at 12 and 24 hours after admission were negatively associated with survival time for puppies. Among survivors, duration of hospitalization was positively associated with CRP concentrations at 12, 24, and 36 hours after admission. Sensitivity and specificity of CRP concentration to differentiate between survivors and nonsurvivors at 24 hours after admission were 86.7% and 78.7%, respectively (considered moderately accurate).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although serum CRP concentration was associated with outcome in puppies with canine parvovirus enteritis, it did not prove to be a good predictor of outcome when used alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association