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  • Author or Editor: Amandine Vargas x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use a biopolymer delivery system to investigate the ability of interleukin (IL)-4 to recruit neutrophils into subcutaneous tissues of equids.

ANIMALS

16 horses and 2 ponies.

PROCEDURES

Animals were assigned to 3 experiments (6/experiment). Effects of recombinant equine (Req) IL-4 (100, 250, or 500 ng/site) versus a positive control (ReqIL-8; 100 ng, 250 ng, or 1 μg/site) and a negative control (Dulbecco PBSS or culture medium) on neutrophil chemotaxis were assessed after SC injection into the neck with an injectable biopolymer used as the vehicle. Tissue samples including the biopolymer plug were collected by biopsy at various time points from 3 hours to 7 days after injection. Neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by histologic scoring (experiments 1, 2, and 3) or flow cytometry (experiment 3).

RESULTS

Histologic neutrophil infiltration scores did not differ significantly among treatments at most evaluated time points. On flow cytometric analysis, log-transformed neutrophil counts in biopsy specimens were significantly greater for the ReqIL-8 treatment (1 μg/site) than the negative control treatment at 3 but not 6 hours after injection; results did not differ between ReqIL-4 and control treatments at either time point. Negative control treatments induced an inflammatory response in most equids in all experiments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Flow cytometry was a more reliable method to estimate neutrophil migration than histologic score analysis. The ReqIL-4 treatment did not induce a detectable neutrophil response, compared with the negative control treatment in this study. Evidence of inflammation in negative control samples suggested the biopolymer is not a suitable vehicle for use in equids.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Neutrophilic inflammation is associated with the degree of airway obstruction in severe equine asthma (SEA), but the contribution of these leukocytes to bronchial remodeling remains ill defined. Neutrophils could cause structural alterations of the airways by the release of exosomes, a type of cell-derived nanoparticles that can modify the biology of local and distant cells. Neutrophil-derived exosomes have been shown to increase airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation in humans and horses. Therefore, this study aimed to identify neutrophil exosomal microRNAs (miRs) implicated in the regulation of ASM biology in SEA.

ANIMALS

6 horses with SEA and 6 healthy controls.

METHODS

The expression of selected miRs in exosomes from peripheral neutrophils was studied by quantitative PCR. The effects of miR-21 transfection in ASM cells were evaluated by gene expression analysis and proliferation studies.

RESULTS

The miR-21 was downregulated in neutrophil exosomes from SEA horses, and it attenuated the proliferation of ASM cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The lower level of miR-21 in neutrophil-derived exosomes could contribute to ASM hyperproliferation, which could, in turn, promote the thickening of the bronchial wall in SEA.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a method to maintain the initial phenotype of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells isolated from equine endobronchial biopsy specimens in long-term cell culture.

SAMPLE Endobronchial tissue specimens (8 to 10/horse) collected from the lungs of previously healthy horses at necropsy (n = 12) and endobronchial biopsy specimens collected from standing, sedated, heaves-affected horses in clinical remission of the disease (5) and control horses (4).

PROCEDURES A sampling protocol was developed to recover and maintain a contractile phenotype in ASM cells from endobronchial specimens from freshly harvested equine lungs and from healthy and heaves-affected horses. Immunologic techniques were used to evaluate the contractile phenotype of ASM cells in culture.

RESULTS Characteristic ASM cells were successfully cultured from endobronchial tissue or biopsy specimens from both healthy and heaves-affected horses, and their contractile phenotype was maintained for up to 7 passages. Moreover, the capacity of cells at the seventh passage to contract in a collagen gel in response to methacholine was maintained.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ASM cells isolated from equine endobronchial tissue and biopsy specimens were able to maintain a contractile phenotype in long-term cell cultures, suggesting they could be used for tissue engineering and in vitro studies of equine ASM cells.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research