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- Author or Editor: Alyssa Galligan x
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Objective—To evaluate the components of canine whole blood samples that contribute to results of thromboelastometry (TEM).
Animals—127 healthy dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, a blood sample was collected from a jugular vein into tubes containing no anticoagulant, EDTA, or citrate anticoagulant. Citrated whole blood samples underwent TEM with tissue factor and TEM with ellagic acid. Indicators of RBC mass and platelet concentration were evaluated, and plasma coagulation tests were performed; data obtained were compared with results of TEM. For technical reasons, samples were not available from all dogs for all tests.
Results—Coagulation time was correlated with concentrations of primarily extrinsic pathway coagulation factors for TEM with tissue factor and with most factors via TEM with ellagic acid. Clot formation time, α angle, and maximum clot firmness were highly correlated with fibrinogen and platelet concentrations and some individual factor concentrations. Sample Hct was strongly correlated with most measured variables; low Hct was associated with relative hypercoagulability, and high Hct was associated with relative hypocoagulability.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For TEM of canine blood samples, coagulation time was primarily a function of coagulation factor concentrations, whereas other variables were dependent on platelet and fibrinogen concentrations. Sample Hct strongly influenced the results of TEM, likely because RBCs act as a diluent for plasma coagulation factors. Thromboelastometry appeared to be affected by abnormalities of coagulation factors, platelet concentrations, and RBC mass. In samples from anemic patients, results of TEM indicative of hypercoagulability may be artifactual because of low RBC mass.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate canine erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) for the presence of procoagulant phospholipid (PPL), determine whether PPL concentration changes during the course of storage of ECs, and ascertain whether prestorage leukoreduction (removal of leukocytes via gravity filtration) reduces the development of PPL.
SAMPLE 10 whole blood units (420 g each) collected from 10 random-source, clinically normal dogs (1 U/dog).
PROCEDURES The dogs were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. Of the 10 whole blood units collected, 5 were processed through a standard method, and 5 underwent leukoreduction. Whole blood units were processed to generate ECs, from which aliquots were aseptically collected from each unit weekly for 5 weeks. Supernatants from the concentrates were evaluated for procoagulant activity, which was converted to PPL concentration, by use of an automated assay and by measurement of real-time thrombin generation.
RESULTS Supernatants from stored canine ECs contained procoagulant activity as measured by both assays. In general, the PPL concentration gradually increased during the storage period, but leukoreduction reduced the development of increased procoagulant activity over time.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The presence of PPL in canine ECs may be associated with procoagulant and proinflammatory effects in vivo, which could have adverse consequences for dogs treated with ECs.