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Objective—To determine effects of the topically applied calcium-channel blocker flunarizine on intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedures—Baseline diurnal IOPs were determined by use of a rebound tonometer on 2 consecutive days. Subsequently, 1 randomly chosen eye of each dog was treated topically twice daily for 5 days with 0.5% flunarizine. During this treatment period, diurnal IOPs were measured. In addition, pupillary diameter and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were evaluated. Serum flunarizine concentrations were measured on treatment day 5. Intraday fluctuation of IOP was analyzed by use of an ANOVA for repeated measures and a trend test. Changes in IOP from baseline values were assessed and compared with IOPs for the days of treatment. Values were also compared between treated and untreated eyes.

Results—A significant intraday fluctuation in baseline IOP was detected, which was highest in the morning (mean ± SE, 15.8 ± 0.63 mm Hg) and lowest at night (12.9 ± 0.61 mm Hg). After 2 days of treatment, there was a significant decrease in IOP from baseline values in treated (0.93 ± 0.35 mm Hg) and untreated (0.95 ± 0.34 mm Hg) eyes. There was no significant treatment effect on pupillary diameter or MAP. Flunarizine was detected in serum samples of all dogs (mean ± SD, 3.89 ± 6.36 μg/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topically applied flunarizine decreased IOP in dogs after 2 days of twice-daily application. This calcium-channel blocker could be effective in the treatment of dogs with glaucoma.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the refractive states of eyes in domestic cats and to evaluate correlations between refractive error and age, breed, and axial globe measurements.

Animals—98 healthy ophthalmologically normal domestic cats.

Procedures—The refractive state of 196 eyes (2 eyes/cat) was determined by use of streak retinoscopy. Cats were considered ametropic when the mean refractive state was ≥ ± 0.5 diopter (D). Amplitude-mode ultrasonography was used to determine axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth.

Results—Mean ± SD refractive state of all eyes was −0.78 ± 1.37 D. Mean refractive error of cats changed significantly as a function of age. Mean refractive state of kittens (≤ 4 months old) was −2.45 ± 1.57 D, and mean refractive state of adult cats (> 1 year old) was −0.39 ± 0.85 D. Mean axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth were 19.75 ± 1.59 mm, 4.66 ± 0.86 mm, and 7.92 ± 0.86 mm, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Correlations were detected between age and breed and between age and refractive states of feline eyes. Mean refractive error changed significantly as a function of age, and kittens had greater negative refractive error than did adult cats. Domestic shorthair cats were significantly more likely to be myopic than were domestic mediumhair or domestic longhair cats. Domestic cats should be included in the animals in which myopia can be detected at a young age, with a likelihood of progression to emmetropia as cats mature.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the refractive error induced by intraocular administration of silicone oil (SiO) in dogs.

Animals—47 client-owned dogs evaluated for blindness secondary to retinal detachment.

Procedures—3-port pars plana vitrectomy with perfluoro-octane and SiO exchange (1,000- or 5,000-centistoke SiO) was performed in 1 or both eyes for all dogs (n = 63 eyes), depending on which eye or eyes were affected. Dogs were normotensive, had complete oil filling of the eyes, and were examined in a standing position for retinoscopic examination of both eyes (including healthy eyes).

Results—The mean refractive error for SiO-filled phakic and pseudophakic eyes was 2.67 and 3.24 D, respectively. The mean refractive error for SiO-filled aphakic eyes was 6.50 D. Dogs in which 5,000-centistoke SiO was used had consistently greater positive refractive errors (mean, 3.45 D), compared with dogs in which 1,000-centistoke SiO was used (mean, 2.10 D); however, the difference was nonsignificant. There was no significant linear relationship between refractive error and the number of days between surgery and retinoscopy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperopia was observed in all dogs that underwent SiO tamponade, regardless of lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic). Aphakic eyes underwent a myopic shift when filled with SiO. Pseudophakic eyes appeared to be more hyperopic than phakic eyes when filled with SiO; however, additional investigation is needed to confirm the study findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate refractive state outcomes following phacoemulsification and implantation of 3 different intraocular lenses (IOLs).


A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 43 client-owned dogs undergoing phacoemulsification with IOL implantation.


Eyes were randomized to receive either an-vision Fo-X (n = 26), an-vision MD8 (18), or I-MED I-LENS (24) IOL. Refraction was measured 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively using streak retinoscopy by 2 examiners masked to each other’s results.


Postoperative refractive outcomes were highly correlated and not significantly different between 2 examiners for all time points (r = 0.97, 0.98, and 1.00; P = .76, .94, and .98, respectively). One week postoperatively, the refractive errors (mean ± SD) for Fo-X, MD8, and I-LENS were –0.14 ± 2.02 diopters (D), 0.97 ± 2.01 D, and 0.15 ± 2.55 D, respectively. One month postoperatively, the refractive errors were 0.35 ± 2.04 D, 0.06 ± 2.41 D, and –0.82 ± 2.20 D, respectively. Three months postoperatively, the refractive errors were –0.16 ± 2.67 D, 1.60 ± 2.99 D, and 0.59 ± 1.51 D, respectively. There were no significant differences in refractive error outcomes between Fo-X, MD8, and I-LENS at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively (P = .16; F (df=2,66)- = 1.89). However, the Fo-X was the only IOL to yield nearly emmetropic outcomes (±0.50 D) at all 3 time points.


The postoperative refractive states of dogs were not statistically different when comparing 3 types of IOLs at 3 postoperative time points, though the Fo-X was the only IOL to yield nearly emmetropic outcomes at all 3 time points.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association