Objective—To evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia (HD) and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency (CCLD) in dogs and determine change in prevalence over time.
Animals—1,243,681 dogs for which information was reported to the Veterinary Medical Database between 1964 and 2003.
Procedures—Information on breed, sex, and age was collected, and prevalences and odds ratios were calculated.
Results—Castrated male dogs were significantly more likely than other dogs to have HD (odds ratio [OR], 1.21), and castrated male (OR, 1.68) and spayed female (OR, 2.35) dogs were significantly more likely to have CCLD. Dogs up to 4 years old were significantly more likely to have HD (OR for dogs 2 months to 1 year old, 1.22; OR for dogs > 1 to 4 years old, 1.48), whereas dogs > 4 years old were significantly more likely to have CCLD (OR for dogs > 4 to 7 years old, 1.82; OR for dogs > 7 years old, 1.48). In general, large- and giant-breed dogs were more likely than other dogs to have HD, CCLD, or both. Prevalences of HD and CCLD increased significantly over the 4 decades for which data were examined.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that sex, age, and breed were risk factors for HD, CCLD, or both in dogs and that prevalences of HD and CCLD have increased over time.
Objective—To determine associations between age, sex, breed, and month and year of admission and the diagnosis of lead toxicosis in cattle.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Sample Population—Records of all cattle evaluated at North American veterinary teaching hospitals during the years 1963 to 2002, which were available through the Veterinary Medical Database.
Procedures—Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between postulated risk factors and the occurrence of lead toxicosis in cattle and predict the occurrence of the diagnosis of lead toxicosis in cattle.
Results—413 cases of lead intoxication and 202,363 control cattle were identified and met the inclusion criteria. Cattle < 4 years of age were at increased risk for the diagnosis of lead intoxication relative to cattle ≥ 4 years of age. Cattle ≥ 2 months and < 6 months of age had the greatest risk for lead intoxication (odds ratio, 12.3). Angus cattle were at greater risk for toxicosis (odds ratio, 1.95), compared with other breeds. The risk of lead toxicosis was greater before 1985 (odds ratio, 1.94) than the risk thereafter. The risk of lead toxicosis diagnosis was greatest in the months of May, June, July, and August.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lead toxicosis in cattle was associated with age < 4 years and the Angus breed. A seasonal pattern existed with peak occurrence in the late spring and summer. The occurrence of lead toxicosis has declined over time.
Objective—To identify the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluate breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms.
Design—Retrospective epidemiological study.
Sample—Records available through the Veterinary Medical Database of dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2002.
Procedures—Information on tumor type and patient breed and age was collected. Incidence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results—Records of 1,139,616 dogs were reviewed. Cutaneous neoplasms were diagnosed in 25,996 of these dogs; records for the remaining 1,113,620 dogs did not indicate that cutaneous neoplasms had been diagnosed, and these dogs were considered controls. The most frequent age range for dogs with cutaneous neoplasms was 10 to 15 years. Lipoma, adenoma, and mast cell tumor were the most common skin tumor types.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplasia in dogs but provided updated information on the most common skin tumors and on age and breed distributions.