Skin diseases are one of the most common problems seen in veterinary practices around the world. Many patients are presented with severe and/or chronic lesions, often refractory to treatment, and collection of skin biopsies is often beneficial to obtain or confirm a diagnosis and to help guide a management plan for patients. To obtain valuable information from skin biopsies, practitioners should follow recommended guidelines based on drug withdrawal and washout period, identification, and proper collection of skin lesions, which should be at different stages of progression, as well as include a thorough clinical history and differential list. These different steps taken prior to the submission of samples will often increase the chances of a more accurate diagnosis. Practitioners should also understand it may not always be possible for pathologists to provide a definitive diagnosis, but the information provided with skin biopsies can often be used to guide an appropriate treatment plan. This review will present general guidelines and suggestions to help obtain the most diagnostic skin samples for histopathological evaluation.
To develop and analytically validate a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of endogenous trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations in canine serum and to assess serum trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations in dogs with chronic hepatitis.
Serum samples obtained from 20 dogs with histopathologically confirmed chronic hepatitis and 20 healthy control dogs.
A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentration was developed and assessed for analytic sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. Serum concentration of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline in dogs with chronic hepatitis and healthy control dogs was measured.
Observed-to-expected ratios for dilutional parallelism ranged from 72.7% to 111.5% (mean ± SD, 91.3 ± 19.6%). Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 2.1% to 3.0% and 3.2% to 5.3%, respectively. Relative error ranged from −2.3% to 7.8%. Trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations were significantly lower in serum obtained from dogs with chronic hepatitis (median, 0.24 ng/mL; range, 0.06 to 1.84 ng/mL) than in serum obtained from healthy control dogs (median, 0.78 ng/mL; range, 0.14 to 4.90 ng/mL).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The method described here for the quantification of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentration in canine serum was found to be sensitive, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible. Dogs with chronic hepatitis had significantly lower serum trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations than did healthy control dogs, possibly as a result of altered hepatic metabolism of amino acids.