Objective—To determine whether Haemobartonella
canis and Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly known
as H felis [large form]) can be differentiated by use of
comparative analysis of gene sequences.
Sample Population—Blood samples obtained from
3 dogs infected with H canis and 2 cats infected with
Procedure—The partial 16S rDNA and ribonuclease P
RNA (RNase P) genes were amplified, cloned, and
sequenced in blood samples obtained from H canis-infected
dogs and M haemofelis-infected cats. The
DNA sequences were subjected to comparative
Results—The 16S rDNA sequences of H canis and M
haemofelis were nearly identical (homology of 99.3 to
99.7%). In contrast, RNase P gene sequences had a
lower degree of sequence homology between the 2
organisms (94.3 to 95.5%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Haemobartonella
canis and M haemofelis are not identical
organisms. Molecular differentiation of H canis and M
haemofelis is more clearly evident by use of comparative
analysis of RNase P gene sequences than by
comparative analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequences.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1385–1388)
Case Description—A 5-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated by a veterinarian because of a 4-week history of progressive lethargy and poor appetite; the dog was then examined at a referral hospital.
Clinical Findings—Hyperglobulinemia was identified via serum biochemical analyses performed before and after arrival at the hospital. Lysis of sternebrae 1 and 2 and sternal lymphadenopathy were detected radiographically. Fine-needle aspirates were collected from the affected sternebrae and lymph node for cytologic examination; findings were consistent with pyogranulomatous inflammation associated with fungal infiltrates. Geomyces organisms were identified via microbial culture of sternebral aspirates.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatment consisted of oral administration of itraconazole. After 6 months, remodeling of the affected sternebrae and resolution of sternebral lysis were evident radiographically. Geomyces organisms and pyogranulomatous infiltrates persisted despite clinical improvement. Treatment with itraconazole was continued for an additional 3 months.
Clinical Relevance—Infection with Geomyces organisms is typically localized to the skin and nail beds. In the dog of this report, systemic dissemination of Geomyces organisms resulted in lysis of the first 2 sternebrae. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and microbial culture of samples of the affected sternebrae were important diagnostic tests for successful identification of the organism. Despite 6 months of itraconazole administration and evidence of clinical improvement, fungal organisms persisted in the dog's affected sternebrae. Practitioners should include Geomyces infection among the differential diagnoses for suspected systemic mycosis and should perform cytologic examination and microbial culture of affected tissue throughout treatment of affected dogs.
Objective—To evaluate CSF in horses with confirmed
West Nile virus encephalomyelitis.
Procedure—Results of CSF analyses from horses
with acute neurologic signs attributed to West Nile
virus infection that was confirmed by immunoglobulin
M antibody capture ELISA were reviewed and analyzed.
Results—Among 30 CSF samples, findings in 8
(27%) were within reference ranges and in 22 (73%)
were abnormal. Among the 22 abnormal samples,
mononuclear pleocytosis was found in 16 (73%) and
high protein concentration with nucleated cell count
within reference range was found in 6 (27%) samples.
A predominance of lymphocytes was found in
11 of 16 samples with mononuclear pleocytosis, and
a predominance of large mononuclear cells was
found in 5 of 16 samples. Sensitivities of analyses of
CSF obtained from the lumbosacral and atlanto-occipital
regions of the spinal cord were 89 and 50%,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in horses with acute onset of neurologic
signs caused by West Nile virus encephalomyelitis,
findings in the CSF are likely to be abnormal, mononuclear
pleocytosis with lymphocytic predominance may
be most commonly observed, and CSF collected from
the lumbosacral region may be abnormal more commonly
than CSF collected from the atlanto-occipital
region. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1303–1305)
Objective—To determine blood cell morphologic
characteristics and hematologic and plasma biochemical
reference ranges for iguanas housed in a warm
indoor and outdoor environment with regular exposure
to direct sunlight.
Animals—51 clinically normal iguanas (18 males, 25
females, and 8 juveniles) housed in 3 Florida locations.
Procedure—Blood was collected from the coccygeal
or ventral abdominal vein. Any samples that
had obvious hemolysis or clot formation were not
used. Leukocyte counts were determined manually;
other hematologic values were obtained by use
of a commercially available cell counter. Plasma
biochemical values were determined by use of a
spectrophotometric chemistry analyzer. Blood
smears were stained with Wright-Giemsa and cytochemical
stains for morphologic and cytochemical
Results—Hematologic ranges were generally higher
in this study than previously reported. Thrombocytes
were variable in appearance between individuals and
sometimes difficult to distinguish from lymphocytes
on a Wright-Giemsa preparation. Concentrations of
calcium, phosphorus, total protein, globulins, and cholesterol
were significantly higher, and the
albumin:globulin ratio was significantly lower, in
healthy gravid females than in male or nongravid
female iguanas. Nongravid females had significantly
higher calcium and cholesterol concentrations, compared
with males. The calcium:phosphorus ratio was
> 1 in all iguanas. Gravid females had a calcium phosphorus
product ranging between 210 and 800. Intracytoplasmic
inclusions were identified within the erythrocytes
of some iguanas.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hematologic
ranges for iguanas in this study are higher than those
reported for iguanas. Sex and age of the iguana
should be considered when evaluating biochemical
values. Healthy ovulating and gravid females may
have significantly increased electrolyte and protein
concentrations, but maintain a calcium:phosphorus
ratio > 1. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:915–921)
Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm infection and tick-borne diseases in dogs.
Sample Population—846 serum, plasma, or blood samples obtained from dogs.
Procedures—Samples were evaluated via the in-clinic ELISA to detect antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) antigen. True infection or immunologic status of samples was assessed by use of results of necropsy, an antigen assay for D immitis, and immunofluorescence assay or western blot analysis for antibodies against B burgdorferi, E canis, and A phagocytophilum.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm antigen (99.2% and 100%, respectively), antibodies against B burgdorferi (98.8% and 100%, respectively), and antibodies against E canis (96.2% and 100%, respectively) were similar to results for a similar commercial ELISA. In samples obtained from dogs in the northeast and upper Midwest of the United States, sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp were 99.1% and 100%, respectively, compared with results for an immunofluorescence assay. Samples from 2 dogs experimentally infected with the NY18 strain of A phagocytophilum were tested by use of the in-clinic ELISA, and antibodies against A phagocytophilum were detected by 8 days after inoculation. Antibodies against Anaplasma platys in experimentally infected dogs cross-reacted with the A phagocytophilum analyte. Coinfections were identified in several of the canine serum samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The commercially available in-clinic ELISA could be used by veterinarians to screen dogs for heartworm infection and for exposure to tick-borne pathogens.