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critical need for training veterinary microbiology specialists and microbiologists working in the laboratory. Due to retirements, changing laboratory test needs, and the small number of training programs, VDLs are experiencing a shortage of trained

Open access

: 10.3390/antibiotics10040409 8. Timofte D , Broens EM , Guardabassi L , European Network for Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment (ENOVAT); ESCMID Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM); European College of

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Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against 40- and 56- to 64-kd antigens of Chlamydia pecorum strain Maeda, which was isolated from a cow with pneumonia. Using the monoclonal antibodies, 5 strains of C pecorum, 25 strains of mammalian and 19 strains of avian C psittaci, 1 strain of C pneumoniae, and 3 strains of C trachomatis were analyzed for immunologic reactivity by use of the indirect immunofluorescent test. Monoclonal antibody analysis revealed immunologic relatedness between C pecorum and mammalian strains of C psittaci, which were completely differentiated from the other avian strains. Bovine strains were distinguished from ovine strains. Antigenic diversity was observed for bovine and ovine strains. Feline- and guinea pig-derived strains were shown to be immunologically different from bovine and ovine strains. Results provide the basis for typing and epidemiologic study of bovine and ovine strains of C pecorum and C psittaci.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of ivermectin at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight was evaluated against naturally acquired ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation in commercially raised ranch foxes (Vulpes fulva). Efficacy of ivermectin given sc twice at 3-week intervals was 97.4%. Toxicosis associated with drug treatment was not observed. Increased dosage of 1.0 mg/kg was given sc to 5 foxes each week for 6 consecutive weeks, and signs of toxicosis or illness were not observed after treatment.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The prophylactic/therapeutic activity of natural bovine fibroblast interferon (BoF-ifn) against bovine rhinovirus infection in calves was assessed. Six calves were each given 8 intranasal inoculations of partially purified BoF-ifn (3.25 × 105 U at 8 am, 11 am, 5 pm, and 8 pm on day 1 and 8 am, 11 am, 2 pm, and 5pm on day 2), and 6 calves were given placebo. All calves were challenge exposed with 105.1 TCID 50) of bovine rhinovirus after the first 2 treatments (6 hours after the first ifn or placebo treatment). Nasal excretion of rhinovirus, ifn concentration in the nasal secretions, and nasal secretion and serum rhinovirus antibodies were measured before and at selected times after calves were inoculated. Interferon-treated calves excreted rhinovirus in their nasal secretions in lesser amounts (mean value, 0.84 log10 TCID 50/ml vs 1.58 log10 TCID 50/ml on postchallenge exposure days 1 and 2; (P < 0.05) and for a shorter duration (P < 0.05) than did placebo-treated calves. No calves developed clinical signs of respiratory tract illness. Rhinovirus antibody titer was not significantly different between ifn- and placebo-treated calves.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate disease in kittens inoculated with Bartonella henselae strain LSU16.

Animals—Eighteen 12-week-old specific-pathogenfree kittens.

Procedure—Kittens were inoculated with B henselae strain LSU16 or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Blood samples were collected from kittens on alternate weeks, and bacteremia, clinical signs, and antibody concentrations were monitored for 6 months after inoculation.

Results—Kittens developed raised, erythematous areas at the site of inoculation within 72 hours. Swelling peaked at 14 days and resolved by 28 days after inoculation. Fever had a biphasic pattern, with an episode of 1- to 3-days' duration beginning 6 to 7 days after inoculation followed by an episode of 3- to 8- days' duration beginning 11 to 13 days after inoculation. Kittens were bacteremic by day 14 with peak bacteremia at days 14 to 28. Strong antibody responses to B henselae were detected. Clinical disease resolved before bacteremia became undetectable, but signs of disease correlated with the highest degree of bacteremia. Regional lymphadenopathy also was evident.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical disease in kittens was similar to that in adult cats infected with B henselae strain LSU16, except that lethargy and anorexia were less severe in kittens, and a biphasic pattern of fever was detected in kittens. Clinical disease after inoculation with B henselae may be strain-dependent. To limit transmission of Bartonella organisms, appropriate flea prevention should be instituted.

Impact for Human Medicine—Kittens that are febrile, anorectic, lethargic, and that have lymphadenopathy should be tested for Bartonella organisms, and contact with immunocompromised owners should be discouraged. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:375–379)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To analyze the antigenic cross reactivity of various proteins of strains of Chlamydia pecorum, C psittaci, and C trachomatis.

Samples and Procedures

Strains FC-Stra and LW-613 of C pecorum; strains B577, Fitz-9, and 6BC of C psittaci, and strain LGV-2 of C trachomatis were studied. Strains of C pecorum were propagated in Georgia bovine kidney cells, and other chlamydial strains were propagated in L cells or Georgia bovine kidney cells. Partially purified chlamydial elementary bodies propagated in RAG cells, a BALB/c cell line cloned from a renal adenocarcinoma of BALB/c mice, were used to immunize BALB/c mice for production of monoclonal antibodies. Rabbits were inoculated with yolk sack-propagated, purified elementary bodies to produce polyclonal antisera. The reaction of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera with chlamydial proteins was analyzed by use of immunoblot techniques.

Results

Two monoclonal antibodies reacted with a 90-kd protein of C psittaci and a 94-kd protein of C pecorum strains. One monoclonal antibody reacted strongly with a 67-kd protein of C pecorum and strain B577 of C psittaci, but weakly with proteins of strains 6BC and LGV-2. Another monoclonal antibody reacted with a 46-kd protein of 2 C pecorum strains and of strain B577 of C psittaci, but not with those of strains 6BC and LGV-2. Two monoclonal antibodies reacted with a 20-kd protein of C pecorum and a 22-kd protein of C psittaci and LGV-2 strains. Polyclonal antisera reacted similarly with the proteins identified by monoclonal antibodies in the various chlamydial strains.

Conclusions

Reactions of several monoclonal antibodies with chlamydial antigens indicated that 67- and 46-kd proteins contain genus- and species-specific epitopes, respectively; a 94-kd protein of C pecorum is homologous to a 90-kd protein of C psittaci and C trachomatis strains; and a 20-kd protein of C pecorum corresponds to a 22-kd protein of C psittaci and C trachomatis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1720–1725)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a monoclonal antibody-based capture ELISA for detection of a 26- to 28-kd coproantigen of Fasciola hepatica in the feces of infected cattle.

Animals

27 crossbred yearling calves, 2 New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedure

A capture ELISA that uses a previously described monoclonal antibody (MAB) M2D5/D5F10 was developed. The MAB was used to capture the antigen from the feces, and hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against the purified 26- to 28-kd glycoprotein was used to detect the coproantigen. This test was used for the detection of the antigen in the feces of 27 experimentally infected calves with known numbers of flukes. Fecal specimens obtained before infection from the same calves were used as negative controls.

Results

The assay results identified all calves infected with more than 10 flukes at necropsy, and as little as 300 pg of coproantigen/ml of fecal supernatant was detected. The assay results correlated well with the number of flukes, suggesting that it is possible to estimate fluke burden. Infections as early as 6 weeks’ duration were detected, before flukes mature to adults and start to shed eggs.

Conclusions

In experimentally infected calves, the coproantigen capture ELISA was more sensitive and easier to perform than microscopic examination for the diagnosis of F hepatica infection; moreover, 6-week-old prepatent infections were detectable.

Clinical Relevance

This capture ELISA containing an F hepatica 26- to 28-kd coproantigen is a quantitative assay that is more sensitive than fecal egg counting. In addition, the assay is rapid, easy to perform and lends itself well to large numbers of samples. Because it is antigen based, the ELISA may be useful for diagnosis of F hepatica infection in other species, including human beings. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:533–537)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research