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Introduction The anatomy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is similar between humans and horses in that it is comprised of 2 independent joint compartments separated by a biconcave intra-articular disk. 1 , 2 The latter, along with the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

T he temporomandibular joint (TMJ) may be affected by several disorders, including geometric abnormalities, end-stage degenerative joint disease, ankylosis, and neoplasia. 1 – 5 These disorders result in pain and dysfunction, leading to morbidity

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Temporomandibular joint motion is affected by dental wear and the presence of malocclusions, but the type and amount of motion at the equine TMJ have not been quantified accurately. Optical motion capture systems are now available that have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

from hinge movement is minimal. 4,5 Studies of TMJ disorders in dogs and cats are lacking and have been limited to those involving fractures resulting from trauma, dysplasia, and ankylosis. 6–11 Temporomandibular joint disorders are often

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

authors declare that there were no conflicts of interest. ABBREVIATIONS TMJ Temporomandibular joint Footnotes a. Model 44 band saw, BIRO Manufacturing Co, Marblehead, Ohio. b. STATA, version 13, StataCorp LLC, College Station, Tex

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

technical assistance. ABBREVIATIONS PDW Proton density TMJ Temporomandibular joint Footnotes a. Lightspeed Plus 4-slice CT Scanner, GE Healthcare Inc, Princeton, NJ. b. Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare Inc, Princeton, NJ. c. Tramadol

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint in adult horses.

Animals—7 equine cadaver heads and 6 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Fluoroscopy, contrast radiography, and computed tomography were used on cadaver specimens to locate the temporomandibular joint, identify externally palpable landmarks for joint access, guide needle placement into the joint, and illustrate regional anatomy. The arthrocentesis technique was performed on 6 live healthy adult horses to determine efficacy and safety of this procedure.

Results—Externally palpable structures were identified as landmarks for temporomandibular arthrocentesis, including the lateral border of the condylar process of the mandible, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, and the lateral pericapsular fat pad. Arthrocentesis was successful in all 6 joints in the live horses, and no complications developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The technique identified will improve the ability to examine and treat the temporomandibular joint in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:729–735).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Introduction The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are bilateral, synovial joints, lined by fibrocartilage, that facilitate a broad range of essential functions supporting life, such as mastication, airway patency, and social interactions. 1 – 3

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

To the authors' knowledge, the underlying cause of TMJ dysplasia is unclear but may be attributable to rapid growth in chondrodystrophic breeds, prognathism, and laxity of the mandibular symphysis. 3–5 Temporomandibular joint dysplasia in several

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Transforming growth factor TMJ Temporomandibular joint TNF Tumor necrosis factor a. May KJ. Incisor problems that may result in inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (abstr). Pferdeheilkunde 1996;12:4. b. Bioniche Animal Health Canada

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research