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Summary

Concentration of sulfamethazine was measured in plasma and tissues (fat, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and skeletal muscle) of pigs given the drug iv and po. The plasma concentration vs time curve was best described by a 2-compartment model, with a distribution half-life of 0.46 hour and an elimination halflife of 16.9 hours. Bioavailability after oral administration was 85.8 ± 5.3%.

The tissue and plasma sulfamethazine concentration vs time data were used to develop a multicompartment pharmacokinetic model of sulfamethazine disposition in pigs. Plasma and tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine in pigs were measured at various intervals after multiple oral doses of sulfamethazine, and were compared to concentrations predicted by the model. Model predictions for tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine after addition of the drug to feed (110 μg/g of feed for 98 days; 550 μg/g for 30 days) were compared to results from other studies. The model accurately predicted the number of days for sulfamethazine concentration to fall below 0.1 μg of tissue/g (0.1 ppm, the tolerated concentration) in various tissues.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The role of platelet-activating factor (paf) in mediating the colonic damage that develops after large-colon torsion was studied in 14 ponies. Morphologic changes in areas of the ascending colon and selected abdominal and thoracic viscera after 1 hour of large-colon torsion and 3 to 5 hours of reperfusion were determined, as well as the protective effects of systemic administration of a specific paf antagonist (WEB 2086). Ponies were selected then allocated at random and in equal numbers to 2 groups that received 1 of 2 treatments prior to induction of large-colon torsion: group 1 —control (saline solution), and group 2 — WEB 2086 (3 mg/kg of body weight loading dose and 3 mg/kg/h for the remainder of the study). In each pony, full-thickness tissue specimens from the gastrointestinal tract —cecum, pelvic flexure, left and right ventral colon, and right dorsal colon —heart, left lung, liver, left adrenal gland, spleen, and right kidney were collected and histologically evaluated. Edema, mucosal necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration in colonic sections were graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe changes). Sections of liver and lung from 3 ponies in each group, and colon from 1 pony in each group, also were examined by transmission electron microscopy to determine the presence of ultrastructural alterations.

Ischemia and reperfusion induced marked changes in all sections of colon in all ponies: moderate to severe submucosal edema, moderate necrosis of the superficial epithelium and lamina propria, and necrosis of the mucosal crypt epithelium. Extra-vascular neutrophil accumulation was evident in all sections of colon and cecum, but not in other tissues. Ultrastructural lesions were not present in hepato-cytes or pneumocytes, or in the endothelial cells of liver, lung, and colon. Bacteria were observed by electron microscopy in 5% of hepatic sinusoids. Administration of a specific paf antagonist, WEB 2086, failed to reduce severity of the observed lesions, indicating that it was not cytoprotective at the dosage used in this model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

included lung, trachea, liver, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, salivary glands, mesenteric lymph nodes, esophagus, fundic and pyloric regions of stomach, small intestine, cecum, appendix, large colon, small colon, heart, skeletal muscles, adrenal glands

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

has a cytostatic effect. 2,4,7,8 The MPA selectively inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation at the S phase in the thymus and spleen. 26 Also, MPA induces apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes, which may eliminate clones of cells responding to antigenic

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

administration were identified in any of the major organs evaluated including the liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and thyroid gland for any of the bats. Effect of treatment on survival Two bats in the untreated control

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research