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disease LRT Lower respiratory tract NPS Nasopharyngeal swab NPV Negative predictive value PPV Positive predictive value SNP Single-nucleotide polymorphism URT Upper respiratory tract Footnotes a. VetOne, Boise, Idaho. b. SurgiVet

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

nasopharyngeal swab (DNP), transtracheal wash (TTW), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being most common. 11 Each sampling method has advantages and disadvantages, but research shows that agreement among the different methods for the detection of bacterial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

study every 3 to 5 weeks between September 2005 and May 2006. In the weanlings and adult horses, a 16-inch nasopharyngeal swab c was inserted into the left or right nostril via the ventral meatus to the level of the pharynx until swallowing was induced

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Before transport to the research farm, calves were judged to be healthy and had negative results for M haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida , and B trehalosi on nasopharyngeal swab specimens. In addition, serum antibody titers against M haemolytica lkt

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether streptococcal pneumonia is caused by strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus similar to those obtained from the tonsils of healthy horses.

Sample Population—5 tonsils from healthy horses, 8 tracheal washes and 6 lung specimens from foals with pneumonia, and 5 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from donkeys with acute bronchopneumonia.

Procedure—Variable M-like protectively immunogenic SzP proteins of 5 isolates of S zooepidemicus from each tonsil and clinical specimen were compared, using immunoblots. The SzP gene of 13 isolates representative of various SzP immunoblot phenotypes from 1 healthy horse and 9 horses and donkeys with pneumonia were sequenced and compared. Cell-associated hyaluronic acid concentration and resistance to phagocytosis of some isolates were measured.

Results—Tonsils of each healthy horse were colonized by several SzP phenotypes similar to those of foals or donkeys with pneumonia. In contrast, multiple isolates from animals with pneumonia had the same SzP phenotype, indicating infection by a single strain or clone. Analysis of the SzP sequence confirmed that differences in immunoblot phenotype were associated with sequence differences and that several SzP genotypes were in healthy horses and animals with pneumonia. Isolates with high concentrations of cell-associated hyaluronic acid were more resistant to phagocytosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An SzP-specific immunoblot is a useful, sensitive measure of diversity among strains of S zooepidemicus. Single strains with SzP phenotypes similar to those found in tonsils of healthy horses cause pneumonia. Because of the diversity of SzP phenotype and genotype among isolates from animals with pneumonia, SzP phenotype is not an important determinant of invasiveness or epizootic capabilities. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:162–166)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (ie, nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

151 horses with clinical signs of acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease (IURD) from 56 premises in Colorado.

Procedure

Health management data, blood samples, and nasal or nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained for 151 horses with clinical signs of acute IUBD. Of these horses, 112 had an additional blood sample obtained during convalescence and were considered to have complete sample sets. Samples were tested for evidence of respiratory tract infection by use of ELISA, virus isolation, and serologic testing of paired serum samples.

Results

Viral infections were identified in 65 horses with complete sample sets; influenza virus infection was identified in 43 horses, equine herpesvirus (EHV) infection in 18, and mixed influenza virus and EHV infections in 4. On 14 premises, samples were obtained from more than 1 affected horse. Viral infections were identified in horses on 11 of 14 premises. Equine herpesviruses were isolated from 10 horses. A relationship was not found between vaccination history and identification of EHV or influenza virus infections. An infection with EHV was less likely to be identified in horses with initial (acute) antibody titers > 1:16 to EHV.

Clinical Implications

Influenza virus (specifically, A/equine/2) was the most common virus associated with acute IURD. Use of multiple diagnostic tests and obtaining samples from more than 1 horse in an outbreak may improve detection of viral infections. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:385-390)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

serum harvest were collected via jugular venipuncture from the foals at the time of vaccination and on days 14 and 28 after vaccination for use in determining possible exposure to vaccine virus. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from mares on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

laboratory—the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Oklahoma State University—conducted polymerase chain reaction-based assays on more than 10,000 nasopharyngeal swabs in three weeks. Dr. Jerry Ritchey, interim director of the Oklahoma State

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

determined for all horses. See Table 1 for remainder of key. Nasopharyngeal swabs specimens were not obtained from any study horse. Nasopharyngeal lavage was performed on 46 horses, and guttural pouch lavage was performed on 55 horses. Some horses

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pony was exposed to nebulized particles for 45 minutes (total volume of virus or mock inoculum, 15 mL). A nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected from each pony immediately after inoculation for ERAV isolation to ensure viability of viruses. Physical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research