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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effects of inhalation and total IV anesthesia on pituitary-adrenal activity in ponies.

Animals

9 healthy ponies: 5 geldings and 4 mares.

Procedure

Catheters were placed in the cavernous sinus below the pituitary gland and in the subarachnoid space via the lumbosacral space. After 72 hours, administration of acepromazine was followed by induction of anesthesia with thiopentone and maintenance with halothane (halothane protocol), or for the IV protocol, anesthesia induction with detomidine and ketamine was followed by maintenance with IV infusion of a detomidine-ketamine-guaifenesin combination. Arterial blood pressure and gas tensions were measured throughout anesthesia. Peptide and catecholamine concentrations were measured in pituitary effluent, peripheral plasma, and CSF. Peripheral plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations also were measured.

Results

Intravenous anesthesia caused less cardiorespiratory depression than did halothane. ACTH, metenkephalin, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine pituitary effluent and peripheral plasma concentrations were higher during halothane anesthesia, with little change during intravenous anesthesia. Pituitary effluent plasma β-endorphin and peripheral plasma cortisol concentrations increased during halothane anesthesia only. Dynorphin concentrations did not change in either group. Hyperglycemia developed during intravenous anesthesia only. Minimal changes occurred in CSF hormonal concentrations during anesthesia.

Conclusion

The pituitary gland has a major role in maintaining circulating peptides during anesthesia. Compared with halothane, IV anesthesia appeared to suppress pituitary secretion. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:765–770)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The clinical efficacy of the lazaroid, tirilazad mesylate, a new therapeutic agent for prophylaxis and treatment of endotoxemia, was evaluated in 24 neonatal Holstein calves. Endotoxemia was induced by iv infusion of commercial Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (3.25 µg/kg of body weight) over 3 hours. Group-1 calves were given endotoxin alone; group-2 calves were given an infusion of 0.9% sterile saline solution, then were treated with tirilazad mesylate (1.5 mg/kg) 1 hour after the infusion was started. Group-3 calves were treated with tirilazad mesylate 1 hour after the start of the endotoxin infusion, and group-4 calves were given tirilazad mesylate 1 hour before the start of the endotoxin infusion.

Clinical signs of endotoxemia were mitigated by tirilazad mesylate. In addition, tirilazad mesylate protected calves from endotoxin-induced hyperglycemia; treatment after endotoxin infusion decreased the severity of hypoglycemia and prevented lactic acidosis. Treatment with tirilazad mesylate after initiation of endotoxin infusion was as protective as was pretreatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-adrenergic receptor agonists, such as xylazine, can have a marked effect on plasma glucose concentrations in horses. Hyperglycemia has been detected in a number of animal species, including dogs, 11 cats, 12 sheep, 13 cattle, 14,15 and horses, 16,17 and

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. See Figure 1 for reminder of key Discussion Most IR horses and ponies have compensated insulin resistance, in which normoglycemia or mild hyperglycemia is accompanied by hyperinsulinemia. 24,25 Prolonged hyperinsulinemia increases

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

systemic glucocorticoid administration has been associated with adverse effects such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, muscle wasting, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, immunosuppression, and laminitis. 5,10–17 Adrenocortical

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research