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Abstract

Objectives

To investigate in vitro effects of ketosis and hyperglycemia on feline erythrocyte Heinz body formation, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, and D-and L-lactate production, and to identify potential metabolic mechanisms of oxidative stress in diabetic cats.

Design

Washed feline erythrocytes suspended in buffers containing normal or high glucose concentration were incubated with various concentrations of ketone bodies and tested at defined time intervals for Heinz bodies, GSH concentration, and D- and L-lactate production.

Animals

Three healthy female domestic cats.

Procedure

Erythrocytes were washed, suspended in buffers containing 5 mM glucose (simulates euglycemia) or 25 mM glucose (simulates hyperglycemia), and incubated with acetone (5 and 10 mM), acetoacetate (5 and 10 mM), or β-hydroxybutyrate (5 and 25 mM) for 24 hours at 37 C. Aliquots were stained with new methylene blue for Heinz bodies, and assayed spectrophotometrically for GSH and D- and L-lactate concentrations. Experiments were done in triplicate. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA with repeated measures.

Results

Neither high glucose concentration nor ketosis had direct effects on Heinz body formation or GSH values. Glutathione decreased to 89% of initial values over the 24-hour period in all samples. High glucose concentration also had no effect on erythrocyte D-lactate production; however, the rate of D-lactate production was slightly increased in samples containing 25 mM β-hydroxybutyrate. Linear L-lactate production confirmed metabolic viability of the erythrocyte suspensions. Samples in high glucose concentration produced L-lactate at a slightly higher (1.2×) rate than did samples in normal glucose concentration.

Conclusions

High glucose concentration and ketosis do not account directly for oxidative damage and glyoxalase induction in feline erythrocytes in vitro, although high concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate may stimulate D-lactate formation. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:463–467)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction 2 in horses. Serial monitoring of blood glucose concentration in horses receiving carbohydrate-containing fluids IV (eg, those administered to anorectic or hyperlipemic horses) to avoid hyperglycemia 3 is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Hypoglycemia was defined as BG concentration < 75 mg/dL, and hyperglycemia was defined as BG concentration > 150 mg/dL. 21 Zone A of the error grids included sample results for which results of both the test and reference method similarly indicated hyper- or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

KM Smith SA , et al. Assessment of acute moderate hyperglycemia on traditional and thromboelastometry coagulation parameters in healthy adult horses . J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2012 ; 22 : 550 – 557 . 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00792.x 9. McGovern

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-induced hyperglycemia is expected for similar conditions in practice settings and should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic finding, all values were included and taken into account in determining the reference interval for plasma glucose concentration. The upper

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.2007.tb00223.x 8. Torre DM de Laforcade AM Chan DL . Incidence and clinical relevance of hyperglycemia in critically ill dogs . J Vet Intern Med 2007 ; 21 : 971 – 975 . 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2007.tb03051.x 9. Kilpatrick ES Rumley AG

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reporting of results, which are frequently desired for the treatment and monitoring of patients with conditions associated with hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. For these cases, devices that require a minimal amount of blood would be ideal. 1 The use of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research