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valvular disease have been reported. 3 Heart murmurs of various intensities have been described in chinchillas and are considered a common finding on routine examination. a To our knowledge, however, there are no published data with respect to the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Physiologic (innocent) heart murmurs are detectable in young dogs of many breeds, and in most instances, they diminish or resolve by the age of 6 months. 1,2 However, in Boxers, the prevalence of heart murmurs in the adult population is high

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of various types of heart murmurs in Thoroughbred racehorses and assess their association with performance by echocardiography and review of the horses' race records for the preceding 2 years.

Design—Clinical and retrospective study.

Animals—846 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedure—Cardiac auscultations were performed by 3 individuals; for 30 horses, Doppler echocardiographic examinations were also performed. Statistical analyses of race records for 753 horses were performed to assess association of heart murmurs with performance.

Results—Heart murmurs were detected by cardiac auscultation in 686 of 846 (81.1%) horses. Systolic murmurs over the heart base were most common; 365 (43.1%) horses had systolic murmurs that were loudest over the pulmonary valve area, and 232 (27.4%) horses had systolic murmurs that were loudest over the aortic valve area. Systolic murmurs over the tricuspid valve area were detected in 241 (28.5%) horses, whereas systolic murmurs over the mitral valve area were detected in only 32 (3.8%) horses. Diastolic murmurs were much less common than systolic murmurs. Review of race records did not reveal a significant association between murmurs and performance.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that heart murmurs are a common finding in racehorses; most of these heart murmurs do not appear to be clinically important. (J Am Vet Assoc 2000;216:1441–1445)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A dog or a cat has an incidentally detected heart murmur if the murmur is an unexpected discovery during a veterinary consultation that was not initially focused on the cardiovascular system. Common examples include auscultation of a murmur during

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

History A 1-year-old 2.3-kg sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of a heart murmur. The cat was presented to its referring veterinarian 3 months

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the frequency of heart murmurs in overtly healthy cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—103 healthy domestic cats.

Procedure—Background information and physical characteristics were assessed in cats that were candidates for blood donation during an 8-month period. For cats with heart murmurs, additional information collected included murmur timing, grade, point of maximal intensity, and presence of additional heart sounds.

Results—Heart murmurs were detected in 22 of the 103 (21%) cats. Echocardiography was performed in 7 of those 22 cats. The echocardiogram was considered normal in 1 cat; in the other 6 cats, diagnoses included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (interventricular septal hypertrophic form [IVSH]; n = 4), left ventricular concentric hypertrophy with valvular disease (1), and equivocal IVSH (1). Thirteen cats had more than 1 examination during the study; 3 of them developed heart murmurs. There were no significant differences in age, sex, breed, coat color, eye color, or heart rate between cats with and without murmurs. Among the 103 cats, there were 6 pairs of siblings from 6 multiple- cat households and 16 cats from 7 multiple-cat households in which the cats were not related; the proportion of cats with murmurs was higher in the related cats (5/12) than in the unrelated cats (3/16), but the difference was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that heart murmurs are detectable in a large proportion of overtly healthy cats and that many murmurs appear to be caused by structural heart disease that is in a clinically latent state. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:384–388)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-certified veterinary cardiologists (SW, ABS). The presence or absence of a heart murmur or gallop sound was recorded as a binary yes/no, along with the point of maximal intensity and grade of any noted heart murmurs. Standard echocardiograms including 2-D, M

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

History A 7-month-old 20-kg male Labrador Retriever was referred for investigation of a low-grade heart murmur in association with exercise intolerance. On physical examination, the dog’s body score condition was 4/9, rectal temperature was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

echocardiographic evaluation or high clinical suspicion based on murmur classification (left apical systolic heart murmur) in a typical breed (small- or toy-breed dogs). The criteria for healthy control patients included no signs of cardiac disease reported on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association