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thoracic radiographic views were taken and subjectively evaluated for cardiac silhouette shape and size relative to the thorax as well as for any pulmonary infiltrates or pleural effusions to suggest the presence of CHF. Vertebral heart size was calculated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

stenosis, pericardial effusion, babesiosis, adriamycin administration, suspected cardiac contusions, and gastric dilatation and volvulus. 26–33 We hypothesized that Boxers with ARVC, a disease characterized by myocardial atrophy with fibrofatty

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dorsoventral view), and humerus length (measured on the lateral view). The VHS was not calculated for cats with pleural effusion. The mean thickness of each cat's subcutaneous adipose tissue layer at the level of the eighth rib in the dorsoventral radiographic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

signs of decompensation during clinical, radiographic, or echocardiographic examination were allocated to the third group (ie, cats with CM and CHF). Signs of decompensation were dyspnea and identification of congested pulmonary vessels, pleural effusion

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-occupying intrathoracic disease such as pleural effusion or an intrathoracic mass. All catheters were placed by the primary clinician for the purpose of patient care. Peripheral venous catheters were placed in the cephalic, lateral saphenous, and medial saphenous veins

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and pulmonary interstitial disease. 6,9 With LUS, healthy lungs have evidence of horizontal repetition artifacts, with hyperechoic lines arising from the pleural line (ie, A lines), indicating that the pulmonary

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Cardiac troponins I and T in dogs with pericardial effusion . J Vet Intern Med 2004 ; 18 : 322 – 324 . 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2004.tb02552.x 16 Francis GS . Pathophysiology of chronic heart failure . Am J Med 2001 ; 110 (suppl 7A) : 37S – 46S . 10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(2), cholangiohepatitis (2), meningitis (1), hemoperitoneum (1), pancreatitis (1), vestibular syndrome (1), pleural effusion (1), anemia (1), and polyneuropathy (1). Procedural findings The median duration of the entire experimental procedure

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

effusion in 24 dogs (2011–2012) . J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2016 ; 26 ( 1 ): 125 – 131 . 10.1111/vec.12374 41. Jones SR , Carley S , Harrison M . An introduction to power and sample size estimation . Emerg Med J. 2003 ; 20 ( 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

effusion, or pulmonary thromboembolism) or patients with increased abdominal pressure (presence of fluids or masses), both of which cause CVC dimensions to be partially or totally unrelated to volemic status. The CVC-to-Ao ratio should be used as part of a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research