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Bupivacaine is an amide local anesthetic with an intermediate onset of action, a high potency because of its lipid solubility, and a long duration of action. When local anesthetics are combined with systemic analgesics, lower doses of systemic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Intra-articular injections of LAs are a key part of lameness investigations in horses, but intra-articular LA administration may be associated with harmful effects. In people, continuous administration of bupivacaine through an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

WBC count, neutrophil percentage, and TP concentration, 4 and intra-articular injection of bupivacaine and lidocaine causes an increase in the SF concentrations of 2 biomarkers of cartilage matrix synthesis, which is suggestive of an anabolic effect

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

previous report 25 regarding the relative toxicity of the 2 compounds is controversial. Dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of lidocaine hydrochloride 38 and bupivacaine hydrochloride 39 have previously been determined by use of flow cytometry in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were performed by injecting bupivacaine h at the base of the proximal sesamoid bones to desensitize the foot and facilitate manipulations. The catheter site then was aseptically prepared with 4% chlorhexidine solution and alcohol. An intra

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

injections of buprenorphine (5 μg/kg) and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg). The right hind limb was aseptically prepared, and an incision was made to expose the craniomedial aspect of the diaphysis of the right tibia. Transverse osteotomy in the middle of the tibial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of a single intra-articular injection of 2% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine on articular cartilage of normal horses . Vet Surg 2012 ; 41 : 1002 – 1010 . 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01039.x 42. Robion FC Doize B Boure L , et al. Use of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

articular surface via fluoroscopic guidance to visualize the final impactor placement site ( Figure 2 ). Bupivacaine (0.02 mg/kg) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg) were injected into the joint prior to closure of the skin with No. 0 polypropylene suture in a simple

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research