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Introduction Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cardiovascular disease in domestic cats with a prevalence of 14%. 1 – 3 HCM is defined as asymmetric or symmetric thickening of the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

H ypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cardiac disease in cats. 1 It is reported in 15% of cats and up to 29% of older cats. 2 , 3 HCM can progress to congestive heart failure (CHF) and cause clinical manifestations such as

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common form of heart disease in cats. Multiple genetic mutations have been identified in humans with HCM; however, to date, a myosin-binding protein C mutation in Maine Coon cats and Ragdoll cats is the only

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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screening test for occult hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats. 1 The authors concluded that the relatively low sensitivity of the test (43%) precluded its use as a screening test in apparently healthy cats. Subsequently, 2 other authors, in a review

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

compromise diastolic LV function. 1–3 Treatment of cats with subclinical HCM remains controversial but has been directed at relieving obstruction of the LV outflow tract, improving LV diastolic function, and preventing arterial thromboembolism and sudden

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

abdominal effusions. Additional consequences of HCM and HOCM include arrhythmias, sudden death, and thromboembolic disease. One current recommendation for treatment of CHF in cats includes the use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

bradycardia in another. Arterial blood pressure and ECG —All cats were normotensive, and systolic arterial blood pressure in 87 echocardiographically normal cats was 131.1 ± 17.8 mm Hg. In 15 cats with HCM, systolic arterial blood pressure was 136.4 ± 19

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, possibly, a decrease in CO. 3,6 The incidence of SAM in cats with HCM is variable, but it is a labile condition that increases and decreases in severity as contractility changes. The plasma concentration of cTnI is a sensitive and specific biochemical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify myocardial contrast enhancement (MCE) of the left ventricle (LV) by use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) in healthy cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to compare MCE between the 2 groups.

Animals—10 healthy cats and 26 Maine Coon cats with moderate to severe HCM but without clinical evidence of congestive heart failure.

Procedure—Anesthetized cats underwent gradient echo CMRI examination. Short-axis images of the LV were acquired before and 7 minutes after IV administration of gadolinium dimeglumine. Regions of interest were manually traced in the quadrants of 5 mid-LV slices acquired at end systole, and the MCE percentage was calculated from summed weight-averaged data from all slices. Doppler tissue imaging echocardiography was performed to measure the early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em) as an index of diastolic function. Three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine differences in MCE between cats with HCM and healthy cats. Simple linear regression was used to assess whether MCE was correlated with LV mass, LV mass index (LVMI), or Em. A Student t test was used to compare the SDs of the postcontrast myocardial signal intensity between the 2 groups.

Results—There was no difference in MCE between cats with HCM and healthy cats. There was no correlation of MCE with LV mass, LVMI, or Em. There was no difference in heterogeneity of signal intensities of LV myocardium between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrastenhancement CMRI was not useful in detecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis in cats with HCM. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1891–1894)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) for evaluating left ventricular diastolic wall motion in healthy cats and cats with cardiomyopathy.

Animals

20 healthy cats, 9 cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 9 cats with unclassified cardiomyopathy (UCM).

Procedure

A pulsed wave DTI sample gate was positioned at a subendocardial region of the left ventricular free wall in the short axis view and at the lateral mitral annulus in the apical 4-chamber view. Indices of diastolic wall motion were measured, including peak diastolic velocity (PDV), mean rate of acceleration and deceleration of the maximal diastolic waveform (MDWaccel and MDWdecel, respectively), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT).

Results

The PDV of cats with HCM and 6 of 9 cats with UCM was significantly decreased, compared with that of healthy cats. In the 3 cats with UCM that had a PDV that was not different from healthy cats, MDWaccel and MDWdecel were greater, and IVRT was shorter than those of healthy cats. The IVRT in cats with HCM was longer than that of other cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Indices of diastolic function in cats with HCM, and in many cats with UCM, differed from those of healthy cats and were similar to those reported in humans with HCM and restrictive cardiomyopathy, respectively. However, the hemodynamic abnormality was not the same for all cats with UCM; some cats with an enlarged left atrium and a normal left ventricle (ie, UCM) had abnormal left ventricular wall motion consistent with restrictive cardiomyopathy while others did not. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1478–1486)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research