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administration (perispinous injection, deep paravertebral injection, or mesotherapy) of an NSAID or corticosteroid, or had evidence of lameness (grade 2/5 or higher). Horses were excluded retrospectively by the investigators or at the request of the owner or when

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

operated in left lateral recumbency. The sedated and recumbent cattle were secured in position using a tie-down strap around the thorax and ropes on the legs. Distal paravertebral anesthesia was mainly used until 2001, after which time proximal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

resonance imaging criteria considered indicative of POD were multifocal areas of hyperintensity of vertebral end plates, diffuse hyperintensity of the intervertebral disk, and changes in signal intensity of paravertebral soft tissue on T2-weighted and short

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Transverse 1-mm-thick slices were reconstructed by use of bone and soft tissue algorithms and exported in DICOM format. CT attenuation measurements The CT attenuation values (HU) for the left epaxial (paravertebral) muscles over the T13 vertebral body

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were also present. Also noted was hyperintensity on T2-weighted and STIR images within the paravertebral and iliac musculature that was also contrast enhancing, suggestive of spinal epidural empyema. Figure 1 Transverse MRI image at the level of L

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

17 17 19    Epidural with medetomidine, morphine, and bupivacaine 0 0 1    Epidural with morphine alone 1 2 0    Paravertebral block with bupivacaine 0 1 0    None 2 0 0 Sedative

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hypointense; in T1-weighted postcontrast scans with fat saturation, uptake of contrast medium occurred bilaterally in the paravertebral musculature in the angle of the L4 processus spinosus and lamina, most likely representing perilesional inflammatory

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

), and cross-sectional imaging of the caudal lumbar vertebral column, sacrum, and pelvis with CT (to define the extent of the bony involvement of the L7 vertebra, adjacent vertebrae, and the paravertebral soft tissues) and MRI (to define the extent of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

inflammatory or infectious disease (eg, paravertebral abscess or diskospondylitis), or a historical unwitnessed trauma. The likelihood of certain differential diagnoses had already been altered somewhat on the basis of initial diagnostic test results. Because

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

paravertebral abscesses. Other myelopathies secondary to a subarachnoid diverticulum or a vascular accident are less likely because they are not associated with signs of pain. The diagnostic plan included clinicopathologic analyses (to help rule out inflammatory

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association