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active subsystem, which consists of the paravertebral musculature; and the passive subsystem, which consists of the VMU. 15 The VMU is the smallest functional unit of the vertebral column and consists of 2 adjacent vertebrae and the corresponding

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Anim Hosp Assoc 1987 ; 23 : 227 – 232 . 8. Rodrigo-Mocholí D Schauvliege S . Paravertebral brachial plexus blockade as part of a balanced anesthesia in a sheep undergoing thoracic amputation . Vet Anaesth Analg 2016 ; 43 : 239 – 240 . 10

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with positive microbiologic culture results for R equi . Paravertebral abscesses were defined as radiographic or ultrasonographic findings consistent with abscess formation in foals with neurologic signs consistent with the lesion location. Uveitis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

probably exert their effects in many ways including diffusion through the dura to act on the nerve roots and spinal cord; leakage through intervertebral foramina, producing multiple paravertebral nerve blocks; or diffusion through dural nerve root sleeves

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Hair was clipped from the right paralumbar fossa, and the skin was surgically prepared in a routine manner for right flank laparotomy. Regional anesthesia was achieved with a proximal paravertebral block (20 mL of 2% lidocaine solution injected into

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hyperintensity of the vertebral endplates on T2-weighted images, hyperintensity of at least 1 intervertebral disk space on T2-weighted and STIR images, paravertebral hyperintensity, and heterogeneous contrast enhancement of the endplates and intervertebral disk

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and selenium deficiency, physical trauma, and neoplasms that invade the spinal canal. 1–5 The neck should be the preferred site for vaccination in cattle, and the paravertebral region should be avoided, especially in situations where the biological

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Several techniques for anesthesia of the paralumbar fossa, including proximal paravertebral nerve block, distal paravertebral nerve block, inverted L-block (ILB), and infusion of the incision or line block, can be achieved for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

consisted of local infiltration, dorsal paravertebral block, sacrococcygeal or lumbosacral epidural anesthesia, or lumbosacral spinal (subarachnoid) anesthesia. The local anesthetic used was lidocaine, mepivacaine, or bupivacaine. All goats were positioned

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

consisted of IV administration of fluids (20 L of isotonic KCl-NaCl solution), oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg), and flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg). Cows were restrained in a standing position, and regional anesthesia (paravertebral nerve block achieved through

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research