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Objective—

To assess clinical utility of abdominal fluid analysis in predicting outcome, lesion type, and whether medical or surgical treatment is indicated for horses with colic.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

218 horses > 1 year old.

Procedure—

Horses were classified on the basis of age, site of lesion, lesion type (nonstrangulating vs strangulating), type of treatment (medical vs surgical), and outcome (survival vs nonsurvival). Sensitivity and specificity of using age and results of abdominal fluid analysis, individually and in combination, to predict lesion type, type of treatment, and outcome were determined.

Results—

Most single variables evaluated were found to have low sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for determining lesion type, whether medical or surgical treatment was indicated, and outcome. When evaluated in series, abdominal fluid color and specific gravity had a high positive predictive value for lesion type, and patient age and abdominal fluid color had a high positive predictive value for outcome.

Clinical Implications—

Results of abdominal fluid analysis cannot be used alone to accurately predict lesion type, whether medical or surgical treatment is needed, or outcome for horses with colic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1012-1015)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Thirty-five dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma were treated with 5 doses of doxorubicin (30 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 2 weeks). Surgical excision of the primary tumor was performed 13 days after the second (n = 18) or third (n = 17) treatment, and the subsequent doxorubicin treatment was given the day following surgery. Resected tumors were evaluated histologically to determine response to preoperative chemotherapy (ie, percentage of the tumor that was necrotic). Survival data for the 35 dogs were compared with survival data for a historical control group, consisting of 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone.

Administration of doxorubicin at 2 week intervals was well tolerated. Three dogs were alive and did not have evidence of disease at the time of reporting. Of the remaining 32 dogs, 3 died or were euthanatized because of cardiomyopathy presumably caused by doxorubicin; 1 died suddenly 116 weeks after initiation of treatment; and the remaining 28 were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to distant metastases. Thirteen dogs (40.6%) were euthanatized because of pulmonary metastases, 10 dogs (31.3%) were euthanatized because of bone metastases, and 5 dogs (15.6%) were euthanatized because of metastases in other sites. The proportion of dogs euthanatized because of bone metastases was significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the study group than for the control group.

Median survival time for the 35 dogs that received doxorubicin was estimated to be 52.3 weeks, and 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 50.5 and 9.7%, respectively. Survival time was significantly (P < 0.0001) longer for these dogs than for control dogs. Percentage of the resected primary tumor that was necrotic ranged from 0 to 87% (mean, 24.9%). There was a significant (r = 0.39; P < 0.05) direct correlation between survival time and percentage of the tumor that was necrotic.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Twenty-two dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma were treated by amputation (n = 17) or limb-sparing surgery (n = 5). All dogs were given cisplatin (60 mg/m2 of body surface, iv) at 3-week inervals, beginning 1 week after surgery. Number of cisplatin treatments ranged from 1 to 6. Survival data for the 22 dogs were compared with survival data from a historical control group consisting of 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone.

Median survival time for the 22 dogs given cisplatin was estimated to be 46.4 weeks, and 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 45.5 and 20.9%, respectively. Survival time was significantly (P < 0.0001) longer for treated dogs than for control dogs. Statistically significant relation was not found between survival time and number of cisplatin treatments.

Three dogs were alive with no evidence of disease at the time of reporting. Of the remaining 19 dogs, 14 (73.4%) were euthanatized for problems documented to be related to metastases. Nine (47.4%) dogs were euthanatized because of bone metastases, and 5 (26.3%) were euthanatized because of pulmonary metastases. The proportion of dogs euthanatized because of bone metastases was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher for treated than for control dogs. Median survival times for dogs developing bone and lung metastases were estimated to be 51.2 weeks and 21.2 weeks, respectively; however, this difference was not statistically significant.

One local tumor recurrence was observed among dogs that had limb-sparing surgery. Significant difference in survival time was not observed between dogs that had limb-sparing surgery and dogs that underwent amputation.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Protein (western) blot analysis and virus-neutralization assay were used to evaluate the antibody response of specific-pathogen-free kittens to FeLV vaccination and followed by natural exposure. Several kittens had barely detectable reactions to specific FeLV antigens prior to vaccination or exposure. Correlation was not found between protection against persistent viremia and antibody response after vaccination as measured by western blot analysis or virus neutralization assay. A statistically significant (P < 0.01) difference in the antibody response against p27 antigen after natural exposure to FeLV was observed between persistently viremic kittens and transiently viremic or aviremic kittens. Measurable (P < 0.05) virus neutralizing antibody titer after FeLV exposure was found only in a small number of kittens that were protected against persistent viremia. Lack of association between humoral response and vaccination-induced protection against persistent FeLV infection suggests an important role for cell-mediated immunity in such protection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty-seven kittens were exposed for 31 weeks to 12 FeLV-positive carrier cats. The carrier cats were infected with 2 laboratory strains of FeLV and at least 2 strains of street virus. Eleven nonvaccinated control kittens and 12 vaccinated kittens were allotted to 3 groups. After 31 weeks of exposure, the following kittens were persistently blood FeLV positive by elisa and immunofluorescence antibody (ifa) testing: 7 of the 11 control kittens, 0 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine A, 5 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine B, and 6 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine C. Only the kittens inoculated with vaccine A were significantly (P < 0.05) different from the control group. After 23 weeks of exposure, culture was done to identify FeLV in the bone marrow of the kittens. Feline leukemia virus was isolated from the bone marrow of 9 of 11 control kittens. Virus was isolated from the bone marrow of 5 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine A, 11 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine B, and 10 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine C. Of the 17 cats that had FeLV isolated only from culture of bone marrow (negative results of blood virus isolation, elisa, and ifa testing), 13 eliminated the virus from the bone marrow by week 31 of exposure. After 31 weeks of exposure, FeLV was isolated from the bone marrow of 8 of 11 control kittens, O of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine A, 7 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine B, and 7 of 12 kittens inoculated with vaccine C.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Borrelia burgdorferi has been implicated as the causative agent of borreliosis in dogs, which is characteristically a limb/joint disorder, but can be associated with multiple-organ dysfunction. Attempts to reproduce this disease by inoculating dogs with B burgdorferi have not been successful. In the study of this report, B burgdorferi from Ixodes dammini ticks was used to induce signs of limb/joint dysfunction, fever, anorexia, depression, and systemic infection in dogs. A pure culture of this bacterium from the blood of an infected dog has been used to fulfill Koch's postulates for B burgdorferi as the causative agent of limb/joint dysfunction associated with borreliosis in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The immunogenicity and efficacy of a commercial Borrelia burgdorferi bacterin was evaluated for stimulation of the host immune response and protection against clinical disease associated with experimentally induced borreliosis in dogs. A total of 30 vaccinated and 24 control dogs were used in 3 separate studies. The vaccine was given im as two 1-ml doses separated by a 3-week interval. Two weeks or 5 months following the last vaccination, the dogs were challenge inoculated with 7 daily doses of a virulent preparation of a B burgdorferi field isolate through intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intradermal routes with or without glucocorticoid administration at the same time. The development of B burgdorferi spirochetemia and clinical disease in the dogs after challenge exposure was studied. Serum samples were obtained from the dogs at various times during the study for serum neutralizing antibody determination and protein immunoblot antibody assay against various geographic isolates of B burgdorferi. Challenge exposure induced limb/joint disorder, fever, anorexia, signs of depression, and B burgdorferi spirochetemia in the nonvaccinated control dogs. The vaccine was found to elicit cross-reactive serum neutralizing and protein immunoblot antibody responses in dogs to various isolates of B burgdorferi and to protect the vaccinated dogs against experimentally induced borreliosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Idarubicin, a new synthetic anthracycline analogue, was administered orally to 34 cats with spontaneous tumors. The maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 2 mg/cat/d given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Anorexia and leukopenia were found to be dose limiting in cats receiving the drug at a higher dosage. The most common toxicoses seen at the maximum tolerated dosage were leukopenia, anorexia, and vomiting; however, development of toxicoses was not found to be associated with sex, FeLV test result, tumor type, dosage, age, or weight.

Idarubicin (2 mg/cat/d for 3 days, q 3 wks) was used to treat 18 cats with lymphoma in which complete remission had been achieved by administration of other chemotherapeutic agents. Median remission duration for these cats was comparable to that reported for cats treated with other protocols. We concluded that orally administered idarubicin would be useful in the treatment of cats with lymphoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of high- and lowprotein diets with or without tryptophan supplementation on behavior of dogs with dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—11 dogs with dominance aggression, 11 dogs with territorial aggression, and 11 dogs with hyperactivity.

Procedure—In each group, 4 diets were fed for 1 week each in random order with a transition period of not < 3 days between each diet. Two diets had low protein content (approximately 18%), and 2 diets had high protein content (approximately 30%). Two of the diets (1 low-protein and 1 high-protein) were supplemented with tryptophan. Owners scored their dog's behavior daily by use of customized behavioral score sheets. Mean weekly values of 5 behavioral measures and serum concentrations of serotonin and tryptophan were determined at the end of each dietary period.

Results—For dominance aggression, behavioral scores were highest in dogs fed unsupplemented high-protein rations. Tryptophan-supplemented low-protein diets were associated with significantly lower behavioral scores than low-protein diets without tryptophan supplements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dogs with dominance aggression, the addition of tryptophan to high-protein diets or change to a low-protein diet may reduce aggression. For dogs with territorial aggression, tryptophan supplementation of a low-protein diet may be helpful in reducing aggression. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:504–508)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cisplatin was administered at a dosage of 50 mg/m2 of body surface to 69 dogs with various neoplasms. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive antiemetics according to 1 of the following 5 protocols: group 1, no antiemetic (control, n = 45 treatments); group 2, 0.4 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight (n = 52 treatments); group 3, 0.2 mg of butorphanol/kg (n = 19 treatments); group 4, 2 mg of cyproheptadine/kg (n = 48 treatments); and group 5, 1 mg of cyproheptadine/kg (n = 10 treatments). Randomization was performed for each dog prior to each treatment. Butorphanol was administered im immediately after completion of cisplatin infusion. Cyproheptadine was given orally 12 to 14 hours before and again immediately before cisplatin administration. The proportion of dogs that vomited in group 1 was 40 of 45 (89%). Butorphanol at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg proved highly effective in preventing cisplatin-induced vomiting, reducing the proportion of dogs that vomited (10/52, 19%) compared with the control group.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association