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A 15-year-old 0.412-kg (0.906-lb) sexually intact male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was evaluated because its owners found it lethargic and dyspneic at the bottom of its cage.


The parrot was thin and had generalized muscle wasting, diffuse feather loss, pale mucous membranes, and melena. The coelomic cavity was distended and soft on palpation, with coelomic effusion suspected. Results of a CBC indicated leukocytosis with left shift heterophilia, including toxic heterophils, lymphopenia, and anemia. Plasma biochemical analyses revealed severe hyperamylasemia.


Radiography revealed no evidence of a metallic foreign body but severe loss of coelomic detail, suggestive of a coelomic mass, coelomic effusion with coelomitis, or both. Ultrasonography and CT revealed severe accumulation of coelomic fluid; a large, heterogeneous, irregularly marginated, and moderately vascularized mass in the caudal aspect of the coelomic cavity; and multiple hepatic, coelomic, and pulmonary nodules. On the basis of a poor prognosis, the parrot was euthanized. Necropsy results confirmed exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with disseminated metastases in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, coelomic cavity, and lungs.


In birds, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is rarely reported but should be considered a differential diagnosis for hyperamylasemia, coelomic mass, coelomic effusion, or abnormal gastrointestinal signs, alone or in combination. Ultrasonography and CT can be useful in further evaluating such patients and should be considered in the diagnostic plan.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To examine the biological behavior of ulnar osteosarcoma and evaluate predictors of survival time in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—30 dogs with primary ulnar osteosarcoma.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Variables recorded and examined to identify predictors of survival time were signalment, tumor location in the ulna, tumor length, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, surgery type, completeness of excision, tumor stage, tumor grade, histologic subtype, development of metastases, and use of chemotherapy.

Results—30 cases were identified from 9 institutions. Eleven dogs were treated with partial ulnar ostectomy and 14 with amputation; in 5 dogs, a resection was not performed. Twenty-two dogs received chemotherapy. Median disease-free interval and survival time were 437 and 463 days, respectively. Negative prognostic factors for survival time determined via univariate analyses were histologic subtype and development of lung metastases. Telangiectatic or telangiectatic-mixed subtype (n = 5) was the only negative prognostic factor identified via multivariate analysis (median survival time, 208 days). Dogs with telangiectatic subtype were 6.99 times as likely to die of the disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis for ulnar osteosarcoma in this population was no worse and may have been better than the prognosis for dogs with osteosarcoma involving other appendicular sites. Partial ulnar ostectomy was associated with a low complication rate and good to excellent function and did not compromise survival time. Telangiectatic or telangiectatic-mixed histologic subtype was a negative prognostic factor for survival time. The efficacy of chemotherapy requires further evaluation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association